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For many years industry analysts have penned 2020 as the tipping point in electric vehicle adoption, with predictions that global electric vehicle market share will climb to at least 3 percent in 2020* and accelerate to more than 50 percent by 2040**.

Now, ABB has taken another significant step in driving this e-mobility revolution forward over the next decade with the launch of its new Terra AC wallbox. The wallbox is designed not only to meet the surging demand for quality yet affordable connected charging in homes and businesses, but also supports the growing generation of renewable energy users who want to harness and manage the consumption of their own power.

The new Terra AC wallbox, is available in up to 22 kW variants to ensure compatibility with the electrical system of homes and buildings across the world. It offers a safe, smart and sustainable charging solution which supports ABB Electrification’s Mission to Zero for smart cities, a vision for a zero-emission reality for all.

It will be available in select markets, including Europe, over the coming months and available globally by May 2020. The AC wallbox can be ordered via the ABB partner network.

The Terra AC wallbox benefits from connectivity that enables configuration and software updates via a dedicated App or remotely via the cloud, providing a lot of flexibility and minimizing the need for onsite intervention and maximizing uptime and efficiency.

Meanwhile, each charger is equipped with a high accuracy revenue grade energy meter that can be integrated with smart building energy management systems, allowing advanced load management features. This enables home and business owners to adjust the power of assets as needed to maximize charging power and cost efficiency.

Further benefits of the Terra AC wallbox include:

High-value quality
• Broad range of connectivity options including Wifi, Bluetooth and Ethernet
• Space saving design enables seamless installation on a wall or pedestal, which can accommodate two chargers back-to-back
• With multiple connectors available, Terra AC wallbox is compatible with the majority of EVs
• Dustproof and water resistant in harsh weather conditions enhancing uptime and product lifetime

Future proof flexibility
• Future-ready with simple software updated via the user App
• Simplified authentication via either RFID or the App provides flexibility for public-use case applications
• Integrates seamlessly with ABB’s complementary building automation solutions

Safety and protection
• Evaluated and tested by independent third party to meet the highest standards
• Current limiting protection allows maximum charging power without nuisance tripping
• Integrated ground fault and overvoltage protection protects both user and car

* LMC Global Light Vehicle Sales update 2019
**BNEF’sElectric Vehicle Outlook 2019

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Los 100 MW de almacenamiento de energía para Pivot Power proporcionarán capacidad flexible y fiabilidad para soportar una mayor generación de energía renovable e infraestructura de recarga de vehículos eléctricos. Sitio en Kemsley. / 100 MW of energy storage to Pivot Power will provide flexible capacity and reliability to support increased renewable energy generation and electric vehicle charging infrastructure. Site in Kemsley

Pivot Power, an EDF Renewables company specialising in battery storage and infrastructure for electric vehicle charging, has placed an order with technology group Wärtsilä to deliver 100 MW of energy storage in the UK. Pivot Power is developing a world-first national network of grid-scale batteries and high-volume power connections to provide essential capacity for rapid electric vehicle charging. The first two projects at Cowley in Oxford and Kemsley in Kent are expected to be fully operational before the end of this year. Wärtsilä will support the projects under 10-year service agreements with flexible performance guarantees.

The two 50 MW lithium-ion batteries will be the first projects completed as part of Pivot Power’s programme to develop, own and operate up to 2 GW of grid-scale energy storage and high volume power connections which are directly connected to the UK high-voltage transmission system. The projects will provide flexible capacity and reliability to support increased renewable energy generation and electric vehicle charging infrastructure. The UK market for electric vehicles is expected to expand significantly in 2020 in what has been described as “the year of the electric car” by industry analysts.

This is the largest energy storage deal in Europe for Wärtsilä, which has set its sights on the UK as a key new market, as part of its plan to lead the global transition towards a 100% clean energy future.

The systems are based on Wärtsilä’s advanced energy management software platform GEMS, which leverages artificial intelligence and machine learning to enable the intelligent management of large-scale energy storage systems, and innovative GridSolv modular storage solution, which supports stand-alone energy storage deployments and integrated hybrids with thermal or renewable generation assets.

The contract is the first to be announced since EDF Renewables acquired Pivot Power in November 2019. It forms part of EDF Group’s Electricity Storage Plan under which it aims to be the leader in Europe with 10 GW of additional storage by 2035. It also supports EDF Electric Mobility Plan, to become the leading electric mobility company by 2022 in the UK, France, Italy and Belgium. Beyond this 2022 date, the Group’s goal is to provide power for 600,000 electric vehicles and 75,000 charging points.

Source: Wärtsilä

FuturENERGY Dec. 19 - Jan. 2020

How far can an electric bus travel before it needs to recharge its batteries? The question comes naturally when thinking about electric cars, especially as the essence of having a car is the freedom to go anywhere, at any time. A bus, however, does not go anywhere at any time: it goes to a specific place, along a specific route and at a specific time, and repeats that day-in and day-out according to a published schedule, so that range anxiety need not be an issue for electric buses. The real question, therefore, is not how far it can go but how fast can it recharge before going there again. This article looks at why flash recharging reduces the overall cost of operating an electric bus line and explains the core elements of a solution… By Frank Muehlon. ABB E-Mobility Infrastructure Solutions. Fuente | Source: ABB Review 4/09.

 

Endesa X and Consum supermarkets have signed a deal for an initial 110 charging points for electric vehicles to be installed in the car parks of 55 of the cooperative’s centres. The first 23 are already up and running and another 20 are about to become operational. The charging points will be distributed throughout Andalusia, the Valencia Region, Castilla La Mancha, Catalonia and Murcia although the initiative will be expanded to more locations, and they will use 100% renewably-sourced electricity.

The rapid chargers to be installed are rated at up to 50 kW, which means a vehicle can be charged in about half an hour (depending on the particular vehicle and how much charge the battery has to start with), the time it usually takes customers to do their shopping. Users will have to have Endesa X’s app JuicePass (available for IOS and Android) to activate the service and start the recharging process. It will not be necessary to register to use the app, since you can charge and pay each time with a credit card.

Creating a profile in the application and registering with JuicePass has several advantages for customers: the process is expedited; detailed information of charging points, prices and operating hours is available; charging particulars can be monitored in real time and your history of charges and invoices accessed; and there are discounts off the charging price.

Consum thus becomes the first Spanish supermarket chain to implement an extensive public access recharging network – which can also be expanded – and offer its customers this new service.

Endesa X: Developing public access infrastructure

This collaboration agreement with Consum allows Endesa X to move forward in its plan to expand public access charging infrastructure for electric vehicles. Last year the company announced a plan to install 8,500 charging points in public access places by 2023, with an investment of €65 million, the most ambitious plan in Spain.

In this initial phase (2018-2019), Endesa X intends to establish a network of 2,000 charging points connecting major towns and cities with more than 35,000 inhabitants and Spain’s 15,000 kilometres of major roads so as to ensure that 75% of the population has access to public charging infrastructure in their municipality. This will allow drivers to always have a charging point at a distance of less than 100 kilometres.

In the second phase (2021-2023), a further 6,500 new public access charging points will be installed in shopping centres, car parks, hotel chains, service stations and on public roads to cater to the growth in the electric vehicle market, providing greater charging infrastructure coverage in urban areas and the main strategic transport nodes both on the mainland and in the islands.

Source: Endesa X

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Endesa X will install two new ultra-fast pantograph charging devices for electric buses on the H16 line in Barcelona, linking the Forum with Zona Franca. The objective is to guarantee that the 22 TMB buses currently circulating on this metropolitan line are kept charged up to deliver excellent service to the bus users.

Today, the H16 line is already equipped with an electric charging station at both ends of the line (Zona Franca-Cisell and UPC-Campus Diagonal Besòs). These were also installed by Endesa three years ago and were pioneers not only in Spain but in the whole of Europe. With the two new pantographs – also installed at the beginning and end of the 12-kilometre route – the charging infrastructure is set to increase at the same pace as the line’s expansion, which has evolved from 20 standard units back in 2014 when the current bus route was launched to the 22 articulated vehicles now.

The ultra-fast pantograph charging system has two parts: the charger, a pillar approximately five metres high, like a lamppost, which is installed at the beginning and end of the line to take advantage of the times when buses are stopped to not interfere with the route’s timetables; and the pantograph, a kind of retractable mechanical arm on the roof of the bus, which lifts and attaches to the charger to begin charging.

Pantographs are ultra-fast systems (500 kW of power) that charge 80% of battery capacity in an estimated five to eight minutes. That is enough charge to undertake the journey again. A complete route normally requires between 40% and 80% of the battery, depending on the conditions.

At night, as the buses have been parked in the garage, the vehicles recover 100% of their battery power in three or four hours, and they begin the next day with their batteries fully charged. Endesa has installed seven fast-charging points (50kW) in TMB’s garages to complement the bus charging, taking advantage of the night time pause in their timetables.

The H16 metropolitan bus line links the Barcelona Forum with Zona Franca, drawing a line parallel to the sea passing through Poblenou, the Olympic Village, Plaça de Catalunya, and Plaça d’Espanya, a total length of about 12 kilometres

Committing to electric mobility

Endesa maintains a firm commitment to sustainable development, aware of the energy challenges facing society. It promotes electricity as the power source that can reconcile ever greater environmental and efficiency demands to the population’s energy requirements. Electric mobility is, therefore, fundamental to the energy transition we are experiencing. Endesa’s response to this paradigm shift in the energy sector is ‘Endesa X’, a new business line in which the company seeks to lead the transition to electrification of Spain’s vehicle fleet, democratising electric mobility. Its first major commitment is the Recharge Infrastructure Plan, which will involve the deployment of more than 8,500 public charging points between 2019 and 2023, with an investment of 65 million euros.

The plan will have two phases:

During the first two years (2019-2020), a network of 2,000 charging points will be set up connecting major towns and cities (with more than 35,000 inhabitants) and highways, covering 15,000 kilometres of main roads and urban areas, ensuring that 75% of the population has access to public transport charging infrastructure in their municipality. This means there will always be a charging point in less than 100 kilometres.

In the second phase (2021-2023), more than 6,500 new public access charging points will be installed (in shopping centres, car parks, hotel chains, service stations, public roads, etc.) to accompany the growth in the electric vehicle market, providing greater infrastructure coverage in urban areas and the main strategic transport nodes. This includes the islands.

Barcelona supports electromobility

This ultra-fast charging system is a key part of Barcelona’s commitment to electrifying its city transport network, as TMB expects to transition to zero emissions on other heavily-used bus lines, such as the V13 and H12, in the medium term.

TMB will continue to prioritise acquisition of the cleanest buses that the industry has to offer to build a fleet composed entirely of electric, hybrid or compressed natural gas vehicles by 2030.

Source: Endesa

Foto cortesía de/Photo courtesy of: Toyota

At Digital Solar & Storage 2019, SolarPower Europe launched a new report on solar mobility, thought to be the first of its kind, which explores the potential of clean mobility solutions and solar power. The report documents various solar mobility business models, illustrating the experience of European and global pioneers with detailed case studies. Three solar mobility models are highlighted: (1) solar-powered mobility, (2) solar smart charging, and (3) vehicle-integrated PV, all of which can lead to vast carbon reductions in the transport sector.

Decarbonising the transport sector, responsible for one quarter of European CO2 emissions, is a crucial step in achieving the European Union’s goal of carbon neutrality by 2050. Electrification, direct and indirect, appears clearly as the fastest and most cost-efficient technological solution to decarbonise transport. EV battery costs have achieved important cost reduction in the past years, with prices decreasing by 85% between 2010 and 2018, allowing the Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) of small and medium electric vehicles to be the same as conventional vehicles by 2024. Technology improvements and investments in fuel cells and electrolysis technologies have enabled a reduction in vehicle and fuel costs that could support the future cost-competitiveness of indirect electrification for certain segments of transport.

The electrification of transport makes even more sense when done in parallel with the deployment of renewables in the EU electricity mix. Without significant additons of renewable capacities in Europe, the full potential of electrification to reduce CO2 emissions in transport cannot be harvested. A study from the Paul Scherrer Institute shows that electric vehicles charging on fossil fuel-based electricity (e.g gas or coal) do not lead to an optimum reduction in CO2 emissions compared with conventional gasoline and diesel cars, while the CO2 emissions decrease by 50% with electric vehicles driving on CO2 -free electricity. The electrification of transport must therefore be thought of in synergy with the deployment of renewables in the power mix.

Solar energy is the ideal candidate to fuel green, electric mobility. As an illustration, in light road transport only, a typical rooftop, 5-kW PV module can easily produce the daily amount of electricity needed for the average commute of an electric vehicle, even though the adequacy of the PV system will depend on its geographical location and on time variations, including seasonal.

Solar energy is also a cost-competitive fuel for transport. It has achieved important cost reductions in the past years. The LCOE has reached €0.04/kWh worldwide and keeps decreasing, as a result of decreasing manufacturing costs and increasing cell performance. The deployment of solar can therefore support a cost-efficient energy transition with limited public support. Furthermore, in many countries, direct sourcing of solar energy is already cheaper than grid electricity.

Solar installations are modular and can adapt perfectly to the energy needs of the end-consumer or various means of transportation. Small solar installations can therefore fit well in urban landscapes, on rooftops, parking lots, rail infrastructure, etc. and can be installed as close as possible to the consumption point, be it a charging point or a refuelling station, thereby reducing reliance on the power grid.

Looking at the physics, solar is complementary to electric mobility, particularly in certain use cases like day charging at work places or combined with battery capacity at home. Solar has a predictable generation curve and produces electricity during the day. This PV generation curve matches well with the time at which the majority of electric vehicles are parked and can be charged, for instance at workplaces or public parking – a match that can be optimised with smart charging devices. Solar generation also matches perfectly the load curve of trains, trams or metros that run and consume energy during the day, making them good candidates for solar consumption.

Finally, recent surveys show that solar is the most popular source of energy and can support the public acceptance for sustainable transport policies. In Europe, solar has the highest level of support among citizens. Solar empowers consumers to invest into their own energy transition and gives them a sense of independence. As a result, one can easily observe the mutually reinforced dynamic between solar energy and electromobility: a recent survey by EuPD Research on electric-mobility has shown that for 77% of the respondents, the main reason to purchase an electric car was to charge it using their own solar energy, making it the most important motivator for purchase.

The synergies between solar and clean mobility can unlock significant benefits to accelerate the European energy and transport transition. The solar industry must therefore be imaginative and forward-looking to exploit these synergies and offer solutions to consumers that wish to drive on solar energy.

The benefits of solar mobility are vast, and include significant improvements in air quality for European citizens, as well as the reduction of noise pollution. Smart mobility strategies that rely on the increasing deployment of solar energy can lead to a more affordable and reliable solar electricity supply. This has the effect of optimising grid integration of future vehicles, unlocking new flexibility sources, and ultimately creating new business models for solar prosumers, EV owners, and charging station operators. Further, solar mobility and all of its related technologies can help Europe lead the global energy transition.

This aim of the report – the first of its kind developed by SolarPower Europe’s Solar Mobility Taskforce – is to look at existing and promising business cases of solar mobility and draw a first benchmark of renewable mobility models. It features existing case studies and pioneering projects.

Source: SolarPower Europe

ABB has won a contract from ST Engineering Land Systems Ltd. to deliver and com-mission integrated smart charging points for Automated Guided Vehicles (AGV) in the new Tuas port of Singapore. Deliveries of the vehicles, which will be deployed to transport heavy shipping containers at the port terminal, are scheduled to begin from September 2020 through to August 2022, with the ABB chargers and supporting infra-structure set to be installed towards the end of 2020.

The contract includes 450 kW High Power Chargers, design and supply of charge point prefabricated skid and container solutions with integrated chargers, medium- and low- voltage switchgear, transformers and associated control and monitoring equipment. This integrated solution enables fast installation on site, ensures the highest levels of operability and mitigates risk.

The future port is a major milestone in Singapore’s next generation container terminal development with an annual capacity of 65 M containers (TEU) and is slated to be the largest port in the world by the time it is complete in 2040. The first berth will be op-erational in 2021.

The breakthrough project marks the first time ABB’s chargers will be used to power a fleet of autonomous vehicles for commercial operation. A specially designed and cus-tomized connection to the chargers will be enabled for end-to-end integration with the fully-electric AGVs.

Nissan and EDF Group have signed a cooperation agreement to accelerate the delivery of e-mobility together – particularly through the smart charging of electric vehicles. This agreement applies to the United Kingdom, France, Belgium and Italy. The cooperation agreement focuses mainly on developing smart charging solutions (vehicle to grid, or V2G) by bringing together technologies developed and mastered by both companies. Smart charging refers to technologies that optimise the charging or discharging of an electric vehicle in an efficient and cost-effective manner.

As part of the cooperation agreement, Nissan is responsible for the sale of V2G compatible electric vehicles, and EDF Group in charge of V2G charging solutions and related services.

Fundamental to Nissan’s Intelligent Mobility vision is the integration of electric vehicles into society, with V2G technology offering significant benefits to electricity grids and providing new financial opportunities to businesses. As increasing numbers of drivers and businesses make the switch to 100% electric vehicles, Nissan achieved record sales for both the Nissan LEAF and e-NV200 van in Europe last year.

EDF Group is committed to promote clean mobility for everyone, in particular by developping “smart charging” solutions with tangible benefits to customers. These fully integrated solutions include the management of the battery’s charge and discharge as well as flexibility services to the grid available through storage. They are carried by Izivia, a wholly-owned subsidiary of the EDF Group specialising in charging infrastructure, and Dreev, the newly launched EDF-NUVVE joint venture, specialising in V2G commercial solutions.

Today’s agreement follows a previous partnership in the UK between EDF Energy and Nissan. Signed last year, the two organisations agreed to collaborate around the development of shared offerings in the areas of electric mobility, smart charging, second-life battery use, energy storage and renewable energy sources.

What is smart charging?

Smart charging solutions include technologies to control when vehicles charge and how quickly they power up, as well as allow the two-way flow of electricity between vehicle and charger. Thanks to V2G technologies, the energy accumulated in the batteries of electric vehicles can also be used for businesses own energy needs or the grid when required – a benefit that will become increasingly important as greater numbers of electric vehicles arrive on our roads and to help balance intermittent renewable generation.

The energy that is stored in a electric vehicle like the Nissan Leaf and e-NV200 van can be sold back to the grid by the customer, generating additional revenue to offset vehicle ownership costs. The financial, environmental and societal benefits of V2G have made it a highly anticipated innovation in the market, but one which has not fully progressed to this point. Today’s new collaboration between EDF Group and Nissan marks a huge step towards realising this electric future, creating a practical solution that benefits businesses and wider society alike.

Source: Nissan

The European Automobile Manufacturers’ Association (ACEA), Eurelectric and Transport & Environment (T&E) are calling on the European institutions to facilitate a rapid roll-out of smart charging infrastructure for electric vehicles. This is a unique collaboration as it marks the first time that the EU auto industry, electricity sector and the green group have joined forces to push for a common goal.

E-mobility has a crucial role to play in decarbonising road transport and meeting Europe’s climate objective. As Brussels gears up for a new political term, the three associations are therefore urging policy makers to guarantee the ‘right to plug’ to all those who use an electric vehicle, so that everyone across Europe can get access to charging which should be as simple as refuelling today.

This will require a massive deployment of strategically located ‘smart charging’ infrastructure right across the EU. Smart infrastructure will enable drivers to charge without severely affecting, or overloading, Europe’s electricity grids. It provides clear benefits to customers, the power system, the automobile industry and society at large, the associations believe.

ACEA, Eurelectric and T&E signed this joint call to action today at ACEA’s ‘Leading the mobility transformation’ Summit in Brussels. On this occasion, the auto and electricity industries confirmed their commitment to making more focused investments in both vehicle technology and smart charging solutions.

Whether it is urban or motorway public charging, all barriers to infrastructure deployment and e-mobility growth must be removed. In order to make charging at home, work and on motorways easy and accessible for all drivers, policy makers should reform and strengthen key legislation, such as the soon to be revised EU alternative fuels law (AFID) and the EU buildings directive (EPBD). Existing EU funding instruments must also be better leveraged to speed up the roll-out of infrastructure, and other financial instruments should be targeted to unlock new solutions to improve coverage across all member states.

“The EU auto industry wants to work with all stakeholders to make zero-emission mobility a reality,” stated ACEA Secretary General, Erik Jonnaert. “To convince more customers to make the switch to electric vehicles, we have to remove the stress associated with recharging. This means that everyone must have the option to recharge their vehicle easily, no matter where they live or where they want to travel to.”

“The race to the future is on. We must remove all barriers and make the shift to electric mobility as easy and convenient as possible. Every consumer should have a ‘right-to-plug’ – and the roll-out of public charging points must accelerate. By 2025, we need 1.2 million public charging points in Europe,” said Kristian Ruby, Secretary General of Eurelectric.

Julia Poliscanova, Clean Vehicles Director at T&E said: “A rapid shift to electric cars powered by clean electricity is essential if we want to halt dangerous global warming. Now that carmakers are preparing a wave of new and affordable electric models, we need to ensure the fast and easy deployment of charging points at home, at work and on the road so that charging an electric car becomes a completely hassle free experience for citizens across the EU.”

Source: ACEA

Today the average car runs on fossil fuels, but growing pressure for climate action, falling battery costs, and concerns about air pollution in cities, has given life to the once “over-priced” and neglected electric vehicle. With many new electric vehicles (EV) now out-performing their fossil-powered counterparts’ capabilities on the road, energy planners are looking to bring innovation to the garage — 95% of a car’s time is spent parked. The result is that with careful planning and the right infrastructure in place, parked and plugged-in EVs could be the battery banks of the future, stabilising electric grids powered by wind and solar energy.

EVs at scale can create vast electricity storage capacity, but if everyone simultaneously charges their cars in the morning or evening, electricity networks can become stressed. The timing of charging is therefore critical. ‘Smart charging’, which both charges vehicles and supports the grid, unlocks a virtuous circle in which renewable energy makes transport cleaner and EVs support larger shares of renewables,” says Dolf Gielen, Director of IRENA’s Innovation and Technology Centre.

Looking at real examples, a new report from IRENA, Innovation Outlook: smart charging for electric vehicles, guides countries on how to exploit the complementarity potential between renewable electricity and EVs. It provides a guideline for policymakers on implementing an energy transition strategy that makes the most out of EVs.

Smart implementation

Smart charging means adapting the charging cycle of EVs to both the conditions of the power system and the needs of vehicle users. By decreasing EV-charging-stress on the grid, smart charging can make electricity systems more flexible for renewable energy integration, and provides a low-carbon electricity option to address the transport sector, all while meeting mobility needs.

The rapid uptake of EVs around the world, means smart charging could save billions of dollars in grid investments needed to meet EV loads in a controlled manner. For example, the distribution system operator in Hamburg — Stromnetz Hamburg — is testing a smart charging system that uses digital technologies that control the charging of vehicles based on systems and customers’ requirements. When fully implemented, this would reduce the need for grid investments in the city due to the load of charging EVs by 90%.

IRENA’s analysis indicates that if most of the passenger vehicles sold from 2040 onwards were electric, more than 1 billion EVs could be on the road by 2050 — up from around 6 million today —dwarfing stationary battery capacity. Projections suggest that in 2050, around 14 TWh of EV batteries could be available to provide grid services, compared to just 9 TWh of stationary batteries.

The implementation of smart charging systems ranges from basic to advanced. The simplest approaches encourage consumers to defer their charging from peak to off-peak periods. More advanced approaches using digital technology, such as direct control mechanisms may in the near future serve the electricity system by delivering close-to real-time energy balancing and ancillary services.

Advanced forms of smart charging

An advanced smart charging approach, called Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G), allows EVs not to just withdraw electricity from the grid, but to also inject electricity back to the grid. V2G technology may create a business case for car owners, via aggregators, to provide ancillary services to the grid. However, to be attractive for car owners, smart charging must satisfy the mobility needs, meaning cars should be charged when needed, at the lowest cost, and owners should possibly be remunerated for providing services to the grid. Policy instruments, such as rebates for the installation of smart charging points as well as time-of-use tariffs, may incentivise a wide deployment of smart charging.

We’ve seen this tested in the UK, Netherlands and Denmark. For example, since 2016, Nissan, Enel and Nuvve have partnered and worked on an energy management solution that allows vehicle owners and energy users to operate as individual energy hubs. Their two pilot projects in Denmark and the UK have allowed owners of Nissan EVs to earn money by sending power to the grid through Enel’s bidirectional chargers.

Perfect solution?

While EVs have a lot to offer towards accelerating variable renewable energy deployment, their uptake also brings technical challenges that need to be overcome.

IRENA analysis suggests uncontrolled and simultaneous charging of EVs could significantly increase congestion in power systems and peak load. Resulting in limitations to increase the share of solar PV and wind in power systems, and the need for additional investment costs in electrical infrastructure in form of replacing and additional cables, transformers, switchgears, etc., respectively.

An increase in autonomous and ‘mobility-as-a-service’ driving — i.e. innovations for car-sharing or those that would allow your car to taxi strangers when you are not using it — could disrupt the potential availability of grid-stabilising plugged-in EVs, as batteries will be connected and available to the grid less often.

Impact of charging according to type

It has also become clear that fast and ultra-fast charging are a priority for the mobility sector, however, slow charging is actually better suited for smart charging, as batteries are connected and available to the grid longer. For slow charging, locating charging infrastructure at home and at the workplace is critical, an aspect to be considered during infrastructure planning. Fast and ultra-fast charging may increase the peak demand stress on local grids. Solutions such as battery swapping, charging stations with buffer storage, and night EV fleet charging, might become necessary, in combination with fast and ultra-fast charging, to avoid high infrastructure investments.

Source: IRENA

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