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i-DE, the new branding for Iberdrola’s distribution activity in Spain is extending the possibilities of its smart and digitalised network with investments totalling over 600 M€ during the next ten years aimed at helping the country’s main urban areas to move forward in their transition towards becoming smart cities.

 

The investments in this project will be mainly earmarked for improved grid developments in order to integrate key energy resources for the development of a smart city, as well as going towards raising the intelligence of the distribution grid by boosting digitalisation and thereby improving the quality of information and service.

Optimunm smart city model for more than 40 spanish cities

i-DE, which is already working on this initiative with a number of Municipal Councils and Autonomous Regions, expects to extend the project to over 40 Spanish towns and cities during 2019, including provincial capitals and cities of over 100,000 inhabitants, in the regions where it operates as distributor.

The work of i-DE, in collaboration with local and regional administrations, is centred on 4 strategic areas for a smart city, from the perspective of the electricity grid, which include electric mobility, grid infrastructures, efficient energy use and raising public awareness: mobility, energy and culture.

Monitoring and assessment of the impact of electric vehicles on the grid
Iberdrola’s distribution arm’s initiatives to promote a cleaner, more efficient and sustainable energy model also favour the integration of the electric vehicle.

i-DE has integrated Electric Mobility Control Centres into its 6 Distribution Control Centres in Spain with which to monitor and assess the impact of electric vehicles on its distribution network.

In line with its smart city strategy, the Electric Mobility Control Centres will allow i-DE to work with Municipal Councils and Autonomous Regions, providing them access to local information about the development of electric vehicles in their communities.

Smart grids and the energy transition
Electricity distribution networks are the circulatory system of the new energy model and the platform necessary for the transition toward a decarbonised economy based on renewable and competitive energy.

The transformation of networks towards a smart, more reliable and safer infrastructure will provide a response to the challenges of this transition towards the electrification of the economy, with a higher presence of renewables, sustainable mobility, smart cities, decentralised consumption (self-generation) and a consumer with greater decision-making capability and connectivity.

Iberdrola has installed almost 11 million smart meters in Spain together with their supporting infrastructure, as well as adapting around 90,000 transformer centres, where remote management, supervision and automation capabilities have been incorporated.

I-DE smart electricity grids
The activities of i-DE – the new name for Iberdrola’s electricity distribution arm – include the planning, construction and maintenance of power lines, substations, transformer centres and other infrastructure, as well as operating the system in a way that efficiently distributes energy among the various agents that produce and consume it.

Rockwell Automation has opened a new 8,000 square-foot Electric Vehicle (EV) Innovation Center in San Jose, California, within its Information Solutions development facility. The center will provide live manufacturing demonstrations, hands-on trials utilizing new technology and events showcasing collaboration with industry experts and Rockwell Automation partners.

Utilizing augmented and virtual reality modeling, the EV Innovation Center provides automotive start-ups and established manufacturers an environment to learn new technologies and standards, enabling them to deliver electric vehicles to market faster, with less risk and at lower cost.

The combination of Rockwell Automation technology with partner technology is what makes the center unique. Specifically, Rockwell Automation’s FactoryTalk InnovationSuite, powered by PTC, is an unmatched integrated solution that combines software from PTC and Rockwell Automation. Similarly, Eagle Technologies provides the battery pack assembly machine, and FANUC furnishes robot technologies, both integrated with Rockwell Automation technology.

Hirata, a turnkey assembly line builder, provides an assembly cell that demonstrates electric drive unit assembly and testing. Emulate 3D, Rockwell Automation’s simulation software, helps to prototype and test machines before they’re built. teamtechnik performs functional testing to confirm performance before building the drive into the electric vehicle.

By 2040, it’s expected that 54% of new vehicle sales will be electric vehicles, according to Bloomberg New Energy Finance. Batteries currently represent a third of the cost of an EV. As battery costs continue to fall, demand for EVs will rise, with up to 40 million new EV batteries needed annually to power new vehicles.

Source: Rockwell Automation

The launch of the third generation of Renault’s flagship vehicle in its 100% electric collection is a major milestone in the Group’s strategy for large-scale electric vehicle development. Seven years after the release of what has become Europe’s best-selling urban electric car, New ZOE evolves in versatility, quality and technology. And it offers superior features, right from entry level, all while remaining affordable.

This evolution is immediately obvious. On the outside, New ZOE shows its personality without losing its distinctive fresh design. The interior has been revolutionized, with a fully redesigned instrument panel and dashboard for improved comfort.

On a technical level, New ZOE is both more autonomous, with a battery of 52 kWh lasting up to 390 kilometers in the WLTP* and has more recharging options thanks to the introduction of a direct current (DC) charge. With its more powerful 100 kW motor, New ZOE offers even more driving pleasure.

Lastly, New ZOE is equipped with many innovative features and connected Renault EASY CONNECT services. Driving aids, a 10-inch display, the Renault EASY LINK multimedia system, and a new urban mode are all designed to make everyday driving easier and more enjoyable.

A few numbers…

Nearly a decade has passed between the initial presentation of the ZOE Z.E concept at the end of 2009 and the launch of New ZOE. In this time, Renault has established itself as a pioneer and leader in electric mobility, driven in particular by the success of its flagship model.

Nearly 150,000 registrations by the end of May, 2019 and just as many drivers won over! ZOE sales have been growing steadily since its launch. Its cumulative sales make it the most prevalent electric vehicle on European roads. 18.2% market share in Europe in 2018. With nearly 40,000 new registrations, ZOE accounts for nearly one in five electric cars sold on the continent. It is number one in sales in Germany, Spain, and France, where it achieved a 54.9% market share over the year.
More than 60 awards across Europe. Regularly praised in the media, since 2014 ZOE has retained the title of “best electric car for under £30,000” awarded by the British magazineW hat Car?. ZOE’s successive developments have enabled it to achieve exceptional longevity.
More than 4 billion kilometers traveled. The flagship vehicle of Renault’s 100% electric range has achieved the equivalent of over 10,400 Earth-to-Moon journeys without emitting a single gram of CO2 during use!
One billion euro. In June 2018, Groupe Renault announced an investment plan to make France a center of excellence for electric vehicles within the Alliance. By 2022, it plans to double ZOE’s production capacity at the Renault plant in Flins, near Paris.
More than 40,000 people. This is the number of Groupe Renault employees involved in ZOE on a daily basis, from the sales network to engineering and assembly lines.

Range and charging: ZOE goes further and further

New ZOE has a Z.E. 50 battery which takes its range up to 390 kilometers on the WLTP*. It now also offers fast direct current charging, an addition to the alternating current charging options already available at home or on the street.

Renault’s work to continue at the forefront of increasingly high-performing battery development did not end with the introduction of the previous generation’s Z.E. 40 battery. The result: with 52 kWh, the battery Z.E. 50 for the New ZOE now offers a range of up to 390 km WLTP*, an increase of over 20%. This growth in energy capacity uses the same sized-battery, maintaining the vehicle’s comfortable habitability.

The new battery Z.E. 50 even has another advantage: its ability to deliver a higher current intensity contributes to the performance of the new R135 engine.

New ZOE also is the most versatile affordable electric vehicle when it comes to charging. With its ability to take up to 22 kW from each terminal, since its inception ZOE has been the fastest-charging electric vehicle on the most prevalent recharge devices in public spaces.

An additional innovation now complements this performance: the New ZOE battery can now also charge up to 50 kW on terminals that operate with direct current (DC). This new DC charge is suitable for long journeys, especially highways. New ZOE is the only affordable electric vehicle on the market to offer AC charging up to 22 kW and DC up to 50 kW.

Accompanied by custom connected services accessible via the MY Renault app, drivers are sure to always find the charging solutions they need, whether at home, work, in public parking areas or on the highway.

* WLTP driving range (Worldwide Harmonized Light vehicles Test Procedure, standardized cycle: 57% of urban journeys, 25% of suburban journeys, 18% of highway journeys), for the ZOE Life version. In the process of being approved.

Source: Groupe Renault

Today the average car runs on fossil fuels, but growing pressure for climate action, falling battery costs, and concerns about air pollution in cities, has given life to the once “over-priced” and neglected electric vehicle. With many new electric vehicles (EV) now out-performing their fossil-powered counterparts’ capabilities on the road, energy planners are looking to bring innovation to the garage — 95% of a car’s time is spent parked. The result is that with careful planning and the right infrastructure in place, parked and plugged-in EVs could be the battery banks of the future, stabilising electric grids powered by wind and solar energy.

EVs at scale can create vast electricity storage capacity, but if everyone simultaneously charges their cars in the morning or evening, electricity networks can become stressed. The timing of charging is therefore critical. ‘Smart charging’, which both charges vehicles and supports the grid, unlocks a virtuous circle in which renewable energy makes transport cleaner and EVs support larger shares of renewables,” says Dolf Gielen, Director of IRENA’s Innovation and Technology Centre.

Looking at real examples, a new report from IRENA, Innovation Outlook: smart charging for electric vehicles, guides countries on how to exploit the complementarity potential between renewable electricity and EVs. It provides a guideline for policymakers on implementing an energy transition strategy that makes the most out of EVs.

Smart implementation

Smart charging means adapting the charging cycle of EVs to both the conditions of the power system and the needs of vehicle users. By decreasing EV-charging-stress on the grid, smart charging can make electricity systems more flexible for renewable energy integration, and provides a low-carbon electricity option to address the transport sector, all while meeting mobility needs.

The rapid uptake of EVs around the world, means smart charging could save billions of dollars in grid investments needed to meet EV loads in a controlled manner. For example, the distribution system operator in Hamburg — Stromnetz Hamburg — is testing a smart charging system that uses digital technologies that control the charging of vehicles based on systems and customers’ requirements. When fully implemented, this would reduce the need for grid investments in the city due to the load of charging EVs by 90%.

IRENA’s analysis indicates that if most of the passenger vehicles sold from 2040 onwards were electric, more than 1 billion EVs could be on the road by 2050 — up from around 6 million today —dwarfing stationary battery capacity. Projections suggest that in 2050, around 14 TWh of EV batteries could be available to provide grid services, compared to just 9 TWh of stationary batteries.

The implementation of smart charging systems ranges from basic to advanced. The simplest approaches encourage consumers to defer their charging from peak to off-peak periods. More advanced approaches using digital technology, such as direct control mechanisms may in the near future serve the electricity system by delivering close-to real-time energy balancing and ancillary services.

Advanced forms of smart charging

An advanced smart charging approach, called Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G), allows EVs not to just withdraw electricity from the grid, but to also inject electricity back to the grid. V2G technology may create a business case for car owners, via aggregators, to provide ancillary services to the grid. However, to be attractive for car owners, smart charging must satisfy the mobility needs, meaning cars should be charged when needed, at the lowest cost, and owners should possibly be remunerated for providing services to the grid. Policy instruments, such as rebates for the installation of smart charging points as well as time-of-use tariffs, may incentivise a wide deployment of smart charging.

We’ve seen this tested in the UK, Netherlands and Denmark. For example, since 2016, Nissan, Enel and Nuvve have partnered and worked on an energy management solution that allows vehicle owners and energy users to operate as individual energy hubs. Their two pilot projects in Denmark and the UK have allowed owners of Nissan EVs to earn money by sending power to the grid through Enel’s bidirectional chargers.

Perfect solution?

While EVs have a lot to offer towards accelerating variable renewable energy deployment, their uptake also brings technical challenges that need to be overcome.

IRENA analysis suggests uncontrolled and simultaneous charging of EVs could significantly increase congestion in power systems and peak load. Resulting in limitations to increase the share of solar PV and wind in power systems, and the need for additional investment costs in electrical infrastructure in form of replacing and additional cables, transformers, switchgears, etc., respectively.

An increase in autonomous and ‘mobility-as-a-service’ driving — i.e. innovations for car-sharing or those that would allow your car to taxi strangers when you are not using it — could disrupt the potential availability of grid-stabilising plugged-in EVs, as batteries will be connected and available to the grid less often.

Impact of charging according to type

It has also become clear that fast and ultra-fast charging are a priority for the mobility sector, however, slow charging is actually better suited for smart charging, as batteries are connected and available to the grid longer. For slow charging, locating charging infrastructure at home and at the workplace is critical, an aspect to be considered during infrastructure planning. Fast and ultra-fast charging may increase the peak demand stress on local grids. Solutions such as battery swapping, charging stations with buffer storage, and night EV fleet charging, might become necessary, in combination with fast and ultra-fast charging, to avoid high infrastructure investments.

Source: IRENA

Innolith AG, a world leader in rechargeable inorganic battery technology, has announces that it is developing world’s first 1,000 Wh/kg rechargeable battery. Under development in the company’s German laboratory, the new Innolith Energy Battery would be capable of powering an electric vehicle for over 1,000 km on a single charge. The new Innolith battery would also radically reduce costs due to the avoidance of exotic and expensive materials combined with the very high energy density of the system.

In addition to its range and cost advantages, the Innolith battery will be the first non-flammable lithium-based battery for use in electric vehicles. This battery uses a non-flammable inorganic electrolyte, unlike conventional EV batteries that use a flammable organic electrolyte. The switch to non-flammable batteries removes the primary cause of battery fires that have beset the manufacturers of EVs.

Innolith will be bringing the Energy Battery to market via an initial pilot production in Germany, followed by licensing partnerships with major battery and automotive companies. Development and commercialisation of the Innolith Energy Battery is anticipated to take between three and five years.

Innolith has used an innovative approach in the chemistry of its battery to generate the high energy density seen in each cell. Conversion reaction materials offer a new and promising route to high-energy-density battery cells as they overcome the poor performance of traditional intercalation-based materials. This new approach will enable batteries to reach cell-level energy content values that have never been possible before.

This new breakthrough has been made possible by years of dedicated research into all aspects of inorganic electrolytes and their application to rechargeable batteries,” comments Innolith Chairman, Alan Greenshields. “Simply put, the experience gained in how to build high power batteries with exceptional robustness and cycle life has proved to be the right basis for building high energy products too. The absence of organic materials, a key aspect of Innolith’s battery technology, removes the critical source of safety risk and chemical instability of high energy batteries”.

Innolith has patents pending for the key inventions of the Energy Battery and is also maintaining commercial confidentiality on the cell chemistry mechanism. Under all licensing agreements for the Energy Battery, Innolith will retain control of all specialty chemical supply in order to protect its intellectual property.

Innolith has already proven the breakthrough character of non-flammable, inorganic rechargeable batteries with its first product, a Grid-Scale Power Battery that is used today in the PJM grid in the US to provide fast frequency regulation services. The chemistry used in this battery has been proven to operate for more than 55,000 full depth of discharge cycles, which is between 10 and 100 times the maximum number of cycles of existing Li-ion batteries in use today.

Source: Innolith

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FuturENERGY Dec. 18 - Jan. 2019

E-mobility has been emerging into our lives for years and although it has always seemed that its arrival would take place at some indeterminate time in the near future, the electric vehicle has recently rocked the entire industrial sector as well as public opinion. The waiting is over. The electric vehicle is a reality, with new models arriving every few months, offering attractive designs, new battery capacities, greater ranges and prices, which although still higher than their thermal counterparts, are relatively contained and justifiable given the performance and the total cost of ownership or the cost throughout the total life of the vehicle…By David Iriarte, Key Account Manager EM, Ingeteam.

Flexible energy options, such as energy storage, smart-charging electric vehicles, demand response and interconnectors, are needed to ensure that the energy transition proceeds on an optimal path. Our expensive power system would otherwise be reliant on fossil-fueled backup and installing excess wind and solar capacity.

The four types of flexibility mentioned above can accelerate the transition to a cleaner power system and ultimately enable the efficient integration of 80% or more renewable energy by 2040, according to two reports published today by BloombergNEF (BNEF) in partnership with Eaton and Statkraft.

The Flexibility Solutions for High-Renewable Energy Systems reports model a number of alternative scenarios for future power systems in the UK and Germany, respectively, depending on how each flexibility technology might develop in the coming years.

Energy storage and smart electric vehicle charging provide flexibility by moving large volumes of renewable energy to periods of high demand, or moving demand to periods of high renewable generation. Dispatchable demand response reduces the need for fossil-fired backup plants in the power system, reducing emissions. Interconnecting to Nordic hydro can address periods of both excess supply and excess demand, providing different benefits over the decades as the needs of the system evolve.

The two studies – focused on the UK and Germany – highlight that policies and regulation accelerating the adoption of these technologies are key to make a cleaner, cheaper, and more efficient power system possible.

Specific findings for the UK include:

•None of the scenarios halt the transition to a low-carbon power system. In all scenarios, the renewable share of generation exceeds 70% by 2030 as wind and solar become dominant, thanks to their dramatic and ongoing cost improvements. However, without new sources of clean flexibility, the system will be oversized and wasteful, making it 13% more expensive by 2040 and with 36% higher emissions.
•Greater electrification of transport yields major emissions savings with little risk to the power generation system. Avoided fuel emissions far outstrip added power sector emissions. The power generation system will comfortably integrate all these electric vehicles, and the system benefits are even greater if most EVs charge flexibly. However, local distribution networks are likely to face challenges.
•Accelerated energy storage development can hasten the transition to a renewable power system, with significant benefits by 2030 including a 13% emissions reduction and 12% less fossil backup capacity needed.

Specific findings for Germany include:

•In Germany, adding flexibility supports coal through 2030, even as renewables grow to dominate the market. This counterintuitive finding is not due to a problem with batteries, EVs, demand response or interconnectors – cheap coal is the culprit. Flexible technologies are important because they can integrate inflexible generation – and in Germany’s case, its inexpensive lignite plants also benefit. To decarbonize, Germany needs to address existing coal generation while investing in renewables, flexibility and interconnection.
•Still, by 2040, adding more batteries, flexible electric vehicles and interconnections with the Nordics all enable greater renewable penetration and emissions savings. More flexible demand, on the other hand, reduces the need for battery investment.
•Even with coal-heavy power, adding EVs reduces transport emissions.

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The tumbling cost of batteries is set to drive a boom in the installation of energy storage systems around the world in the years from now to 2040, according to the latest annual forecast from research company BloombergNEF (BNEF). The global energy storage market (excluding pumped hydro) will grow to a cumulative 942 GW/2,857 GWh by 2040, attracting $1.2 trillion in investment over the next 22 years. Cheap batteries mean that wind and solar will increasingly be able to run when the wind isn’t blowing and the sun isn’t shining.

BNEF’s latest Long-Term Energy Storage Outlook sees the capital cost of a utility-scale lithium-ion battery storage system sliding another 52% between 2018 and 2030, on top of the steep declines seen earlier this decade. This will transform the economic case for batteries in both the vehicle and the electricity sector.

BENF has become much more bullish about storage deployments since their last forecast a year ago. This is partly due to faster-than-expected falls in storage system costs, and partly to a greater focus on two emerging applications for the technology – electric vehicle charging, and energy access in remote regions.”

BNEF sees energy storage growing to a point where it is equivalent to 7% of the total installed power capacity globally in 2040. The majority of storage capacity will be utility-scale until the mid-2030s, when behind the meter applications overtake.

Behind-the-meter, or BTM, installations will be sited at business and industrial premises, and at millions of residential properties. For their owners, they will perform a variety of tasks, including shifting grid demand in order to reduce electricity costs, storing excess rooftop solar output, improving power quality and reliability, and earning fees for helping to smooth voltage on the grid.

China, the U.S., India, Japan, Germany, France, Australia, South Korea and the U.K will be the leading countries. These nine markets will represent two thirds of the installed capacity by 2040. In the near-term, South Korea will dominate the market, the U.S. will take over in the early 2020s, but will be overtaken by China in the 2020s. China will then lead throughout to 2040.

Especially developing countries in Africa will also see rapid growth in battery storage. Utilities are likely to “recognize increasingly that isolated assets combining solar, diesel and batteries are cheaper in far flung sites than either an extension of the main grid or a fossil-only generator,” the report says.

BNEF analysis estimates energy storage build across multiple applications to meet variable supply and demand and to operate the grid more efficiently, while taking into account customer-sited economics for using storage as well as system-level needs. Aggregating BTM energy storage could be a viable alternative to utility-scale for many applications but it will take years before regulatory frameworks in some countries fully allow this.

There is significant opportunity for energy storage to provide flexibility – to help balance variable supply and demand – and systems will undoubtedly be used in complex ways. Energy storage will become a practical alternative to new-build generation or network reinforcement.

Despite the rapid growth from today’s levels, demand for batteries for stationary storage will make up only 7% of total battery demand in 2040. It will be dwarfed by the electrical vehicle market, which will more materially impact the supply-demand balance and prices for metals such as lithium and cobalt.

Iberdrola and IKEA have signed a cooperation agreement to promote sustainable mobility, under which the energy company will install over 50 e-vehicle charging stations and supply 100% renewable energy to the stores, logistics centres and corporate buildings of the decoration company in Spain in 2019.

With the aim of improving the daily lives of a majority of people, IKEA will offer free electric vehicle charging to all its customers. The stores in Málaga, Badalona and Zaragoza will be the first to have this equipment.

In parallel, Iberdrola will install charging stations at the IKEA main offices in San Sebastián de los Reyes and its logistics centre in Valls (Tarragona). The rollout in Spain, which will start this month, will be completed in 2019.

Clean energy handled from a mobile phone

The customers and users of these IKEA stations will recharge the batteries of their electric cars with 100% green energy, which comes from clean generating sources and has a certificate guaranteeing its renewable origins.

Also, whether they are customers of Iberdrola or not, they will be able to manage charging on their mobile phones using the app that the company has developed as part of itsSmart Mobility plan. With the Iberdrola Public Charging App, e-vehicle drivers will be able to geo-locate and book a charging station.

Iberdrola, leading the transition to sustainable mobility

The agreement forms part of Iberdrola’s plans to promote and lead the transition to sustainable mobility and the electrification of transport as an effective way to fight climate change.

The company has developed a Sustainable Mobility Plan that includes the installation of 25,000 charging stations in Spain in four years. The plan also includes implementing a network of fast, superfast and ultrafast charging stations that will be installed every 100 km on the major motorways and corridors of Spain between 2018 and 2019, which will make it possible to cross Spain from end to end in an electric car.

At the same time, the company is working on developing specific policies and actions to ‘mobilise’ all the players involved: the administration, companies, car manufacturers, etc. Iberdrola has therefore reached agreements or pacts with the various players involved to promote sustainability, such as AVIA, BMW, Renault, Hyundai, Groupe PSA, Volkswagen, Telefónica, the Spanish Electricity Grid, Pelayo, Auchan Retail Group Spain and ZITY.

Source: Iberdrola

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Global clean energy investment was $67.8 billion in the third quarter of 2018, down 6% from the same period last year, according to the latest authoritative figures from Bloomberg NEF (BNEF). The slip in the July-September quarter leaves investment for the year so far running a modest 2% below that in the first nine months of 2017 – leaving open the possibility that 2018 as a whole will end up matching last year’s total, particularly if a few more multibillion-dollar offshore wind deals are concluded before Christmas.

BNEF includes equity raising by specialist electric vehicle companies in its clean energy investment totals, and this element was a conspicuous bright spot in the latest quarter. There was a $1 billion initial public offering by NIO, a $585 million Series C venture capital round by Guangzhou Xiaopeng Motors and a $294 million pre-IPO round by Zhejiang Dianka Automobile.

Colin McKerracher, head of advanced transport analysis at BNEF, said that there is a growing amount of money chasing China’s electric vehicle boom. “We’re seeing more companies raising funds as they look to make the jump from concept cars to high-volume manufacturing. But the market looks increasingly crowded and consolidation is likely,” he added.

Looking at the third-quarter global investment figures by type, asset finance of utility-scale renewable energy projects came to $49.3 billion, down 15% on 3Q 2017, while the purchase of small-scale solar systems of less than 1 MW totaled $13.5 billion, up 9% on a year earlier.

Public markets investment in clean energy jumped 120% to $3.1 billion, helped by the NIO flotation mentioned above but also by a $1.3 billion convertible issue from waste-to-energy specialist China Everbright International and a $311 million IPO by U.S. fuel cell developer Bloom Energy.

Venture capital and private equity investment increased even more sharply, by 378% to $2.4 billion. VC/PE fundings of specialist clean energy companies have reached $7.5 billion in the first nine months of 2018, making this year certain to be the strongest since at least 2011. The largest six VC/PE new equity deals of 2018 so far have all involved Chinese electric vehicle firms, including the two mentioned above during 3Q.

The three biggest renewable energy asset financings in the quarter were the 860 MW Triton Knoll project in U.K. waters at an investment cost of $2.6 billion, the Enel Green Power South Africa portfolio, at $1.4 billion for 706 MW, and the Guohua Dongtai offshore wind farm phase four in Chinese waters, at an estimated $1.2 billion for 300 MW.

A country split of the overall numbers shows China as yet again the largest investor in clean energy in 3Q at $26.7 billion, marginally above the numbers for the same period of 2017. However, there were further signs of one important, expected change: a cooling-off in the country’s solar installation surge, in the face of deliberate action by policy-makers. In 3Q, Chinese solar investment was $14.2 billion, down 23% on a year earlier.

Other countries and trading blocs investing in clean energy in excess of $1 billion in 3Q 2018 were:

  • Europe at $13.4 billion, up 1%
  • Germany at $1.3 billion, down 49%
  • India at $1.5 billion, up 14%
  • Japan at $4 billion, down 21%
  • Netherlands at $1.1 billion, up nearly fourfold
  • South Africa at $2.6 billion, up 90-fold, making investment in 2018 the highest for five years
  • Spain at $1.9 billion, up 11-fold, making investment in 2018 the highest since 2011
  • Turkey at $1.2 billion, up 25%
  • The U.K. at $2.9 billion, down 46%
  • The U.S. at $11.4 billion, down 20% compared to 3Q 2017
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