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energy sector

Photo: IEA, Getty Images)

The electricity sector attracted the largest share of energy investments in 2017, sustained by robust spending on grids, exceeding the oil and gas industry for the second year in row, as the energy sector moves toward greater electrification, according to the International Energy Agency’s latest review of global energy spending. Global energy investment totalled USD 1.8 trillion in 2017, a 2% decline in real terms from the previous year, according to the World Energy Investment 2018 report. More than USD 750 billion went to the electricity sector while USD 715 billion was spent on oil and gas supply globally.

State-backed investments are accounting for a rising share of global energy investment, as state-owned enterprises have remained more resilient in oil and gas and thermal power compared with private actors. The share of global energy investment driven by state-owned enterprises increased over the past five years to over 40% in 2017.

Meanwhile, government policies are playing a growing role in driving private spending. Across all power sector investments, more than 95% of investment is now based on regulation or contracts for remuneration, with a dwindling role for new projects based solely on revenues from variable pricing in competitive wholesale markets. Investment in energy efficiency is particularly linked to government policy, often through energy performance standards.

The report also finds that after several years of growth, combined global investment in renewables and energy efficiency declined by 3% in 2017 and there is a risk that it will slow further this year. For instance, investment in renewable power, which accounted for two-thirds of power generation spending, dropped 7% in 2017. Recent policy changes in China linked to support for the deployment of solar PV raise the risk of a slowdown in investment this year. As China accounts for more than 40% of global investment in solar PV, its policy changes have global implications.

While energy efficiency showed some of the strongest expansion in 2017, it was not enough to offset the decline in renewables. Moreover, efficiency investment growth has weakened in the past year as policy activity showed signs of slowing down.

The share of fossil fuels in energy supply investment rose last year for the first time since 2014, as spending in oil and gas increased modestly. Meanwhile, retirements of nuclear power plants exceeded new construction starts as investment in the sector declined to its lowest level in five years in 2017. The share of national oil companies in total oil and gas upstream investment remained near record highs, a trend expected to persist in 2018.

Though still a small part of the market, electric vehicles now account for much of the growth in global passenger vehicle sales, spurred by government purchase incentives. Nearly one quarter of the global value of EV sales in 2017 came from the budgets of governments, who are allocating more capital to support the sector each year.

Final investment decisions for coal power plants to be built in the coming years declined for a second straight year, reaching a third of their 2010 level. However, despite declining global capacity additions, and an elevated level of retirements of existing plants, the global coal fleet continued to expand in 2017, mostly due to markets in Asia. And while there was a shift towards more efficient plants, 60% of currently operating capacity uses inefficient subcritical technology.

The report finds that the prospects of the US shale industry are improving. Between 2010 and 2014, companies spent up to USD 1.8 for each dollar of revenue. However, the industry has almost halved its breakeven price, providing a more sustainable basis for future expansion. This underpins a record increase in US light tight oil production of 1.3 million barrels a day in 2018.

The improved prospects for the US shale sector contrast with the rest of the upstream oil and gas industry. Investment in conventional oil projects, which are responsible for the bulk of global supply, remains subdued. Investment in new conventional capacity is set to plunge in 2018 to about one-third of the total, a multi-year low raising concerns about the long-term adequacy of supply.

Source: IEA

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More than 4 billion people are not connected to the internet today, representing a huge opportunity for both development and business. Bridging the ‘digital divide’ for these un-networked billions requires affordable and reliable access to electricity. Power is a crucial element at all stages of providing internet access: from running backhaul services to the core of the network and base stations to powering the devices that consumers use to get online. Yet, across much of the developing world, reliable electricity remains expensive and hard to get.

Achieving universal access to the internet will require expanding access to affordable and reliable electricity, especially for people living in the remote areas in emerging economies, finds a new report by Bloomberg New Energy Finance in collaboration with Facebook.

The report Powering Last-Mile Connectivity outlines some of the challenges the developing world faces in giving more people access to the grid and the implications for the mobile industry if billions of people continue to lack that access.

Five key insights from the study are:

  1. Bridging the ‘digital divide’ for the four billion people without internet access, especially those in remote areas in emerging economies, requires affordable and reliable access to electricity.
  2. Electricity access is key for both provision and consumption of connectivity services. Power is needed across the value chain, from backhaul to access networks, to the devices that people use to get online.
  3. Globally, mobile network operators and cellular tower operators spend $3.8 billion on diesel fuel for remote sites annually. These costs make up a significant component of the operating budget.
  4. Solar and battery storage are now cheap enough to play a key role in expanding internet access.
  5. Partnerships between the telecommunications industry and the energy sector will enable both sectors to scale more rapidly towards universal access.

Powering the consumers of new connectivity

Without access to electricity in the home, connecting to internet services is a significant challenge, primarily due to the difficulty and cost of device charging. Even though people might live in communities covered by 3G networks, their smartphone use will be limited if they lack electricity at home. Off-grid consumers travel up to 15 km per week to charge their phones at small kiosks. Depending on the location, kiosk charging can constitute over a third of the total cost ($2-7 per month) of owning an internet-capable device, and a significant portion of household income. Such conditions make daily charging prohibitive and curb smartphone ownership and use.

Small-scale PV and storage have started to gain traction as primary energy sources for remote infrastructure and communities, particularly when innovative financing structures bring them to market. The critical components for such systems are rapidly becoming cheaper. Energy access companies are using these technologies to power connectivity with various business models, from small portable solar kits for individual households to village-scale micro-grids that can power local businesses and cellular infrastructure.

Powering connectivity infrastructure

Expanding a cellular network typically requires the construction of new towers for the base stations that connect mobile phones to the wider network. However, in remote areas, towers need expensive power and generate limited revenue due to low population density. A combination of cheaper, distributed solar-powered energy for conventional cellular infrastructure, and smaller, more efficient base stations designed to plug coverage gaps in the main network could reach more people at lower cost.

More than a million cellular towers in developing countries are off-grid or have at best extremely unreliable grid supply. These towers typically rely on diesel generators for primary power during large parts of the day to avoid interruptions to the mobile network.

Composed of a mix of solar, diesel generator, and batteries, hybrid power systems can save MNOs or tower operators up to 54% of the energy cost for an off-grid tower that a conventional diesel generator would incur.

Opportunities for partnerships abound

A combination of technological advances and innovative business models now provide alternative approaches to powering connectivity at the ‘last mile’. There are plenty of opportunities for both large companies and start-ups to make the most of them. Partnerships between telcos, energy companies and start-ups on innovative business models, alternative communication infrastructure and early stage venture capital can drive energy and network connectivity for billions of people.

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The power sector will play a crucial role in attaining the European climate targets, which aim to cut greenhouse gases by at least 40% by 2030, compared to 1990. Tracking progress in the power sector is hence of utmost importance. For the fourth year in a row, the second year in a row with Agora Energiewende, Sanbag has presented the state of the energy transition in the European power sector, to update what happened in 2017, with the report The EU Power Sector Review 2017, launched at the end of January in Brussels. Key topics include renewables growth, conventional power generation, power consumption, and CO2 emissions.

The report celebrates how the wind, sun and biomass overtook coal, in supplying electricity across Europe in 2017, but also highlights some of the failings of the current electricity transition, and gives a very mixed picture: EU renewables has been increasingly reliant on the success story of wind in Germany, UK and Denmark, which has been inspiring. But other countries need to do more. Solar deployment is surprisingly low, and needs to respond to the massive falls in costs. And with electricity consumption rising for the third year, countries need to reassess their efforts on energy efficiency.

But to make the biggest difference to emissions, countries need to retire coal plants. The study forecasts Europe’s 258 operational coal plants in 2017 emitted 38% of all EU ETS emissions, or 15% of total EU greenhouse gases. In 2017, Netherlands, Italy and Portugal added their names to the list of countries to phase-out coal, which is great. We need a fast and complete coal phase-out in Europe: the thought of charging electric cars in the 2030’s with coal just doesn’t compute. A 35% renewables target would make a 2030 coal phaseout possible.

Key findings include:

• New renewables generation sharply increased in 2017, with wind, solar and biomass overtaking coal for the first time. Since Europe‘s hydro potential is largely tapped, the increase in renewables comes from wind, solar and biomass generation. They rose by 12% in 2017 to 679 Terawatt hours, putting wind, solar and biomass above coal generation for the first time. This is incredible progress, considering just five years ago, coal generation was more than twice that of wind, solar and biomass.

• But renewables growth has become even more uneven. Germany and the UK alone contributed to 56% of the growth in renewables in the past three years. There is also a bias in favor of wind: a massive 19% increase in wind generation took place in 2017, due to good wind conditions and huge investment into wind plants. This is good news since the biomass boom is now over, but bad news in that solar was responsible for just 14% of the renewables growth in 2014 to 2017.

• Electricity consumption rose by 0.7% in 2017, marking a third consecutive year of increases. With Europe‘s economy being on a growth path again, power demand is rising as well. This suggests Europe‘s efficiency efforts are not sufficient and hence the EU‘s efficiency policy needs further strengthening.

• CO2 emissions in the power sector were unchanged in 2017, and rose economy-wide. Low hydro and nuclear generation coupled with increasing demand led to increasing fossil generation. So despite the large rise in wind generation, we estimate power sector CO2 emissions remained unchanged at 1019 million tonnes. However, overall stationary emissions in the EU emissions trading sectors rose slightly from 1750 to 1755 million tonnes because of stronger industrial production especially in rising steel production. Together with additional increases in non-ETS gas and oil demand, we estimate overall EU greenhouse gas emissions rose by around 1% in 2017.

• Western Europe is phasing out coal, but Eastern Europe is sticking to it. Three more Member States announced coal phase-outs in 2017 – Netherlands, Italy and Portugal. They join France and the UK in committing to phase-out coal, while Eastern European countries are sticking to coal. The debate in Germany, Europe’s largest coal and lignite consumer, is ongoing and will only be decided in 2019.

Source: Sandbag

Keynote speakers at the Global Power & Energy Leaders' Summit will examine the long-term change in the way energy is produced, distributed and consumed

With the core theme of the global energy transition, the Global Power & Energy Leaders’ Summit at GPEX 2018 will address important commercial, regulatory, geopolitical and technical issues impacting the future of the power and energy industry.

Government, policymakers and senior business leaders from international organisations including the International Energy Agency, Gas Natural Fenosa, the US Federal Energy Regulatory Commission and GE Ventures, have today confirmed their participation.

Speakers include:

Blanca Losada Martin, Chief Technology and Engineering Officer, Gas Natural Fenosa
Neil Chatterjee, Commissioner, US Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC)
Lazlo Varro, Chief Economist, International Energy Agency (IEA)
Eric Bielke, Director of Energy Investment, GE Ventures
Ulla Sandborgh, Director General and Chief Executive Officer, Svenska kraftnät
Wilfried Breuer, Managing Director and Member of the Executive Board, TenneT
Laurent Schmitt, Secretary-General, ENTSO-E
Santi Martínez Farrero, Chief Executive Officer, Estabanell Energia

Both the global commitment to reduce GHG emissions and the increasing role of digital technologies are driving major changes within the power and energy industry. Leading energy companies, combining growing renewable energy generation and digitalisation, are shifting to a cleaner and more efficient energy mix. GPEX will gather the leaders and innovators of the energy transition to discuss the challenges, solutions and opportunities of the changing energy landscape.

The Global Power & Energy Leaders’ Summit will centre on five key themes: Vision for the Energy Transition; New Business Model; Progressive Policy; Financing the Future of Energy; and The Digitalisation Era. It will provide international power and energy professionals with the latest insights on the transition, in terms of where we are today, what steps can be undertaken in the near-future, and where we will be in the 2030-2050 timeline.

Stewart Bundock, Event Director, at organiser dmg :: events global energy, says: “We’re delighted to welcome such a diverse, exciting and innovative speaker line-up to GPEX, for what promises to be a highly topical, controversial and dynamic debate on the energy transition.

The Summit is an integral part of the Global Power & Energy Exhibition (GPEX 2018) – which takes place in Barcelona, Spain (17-20 September) – to showcase the strategies and technologies needed to adapt to the global transition, and the move towards a more sustainable, low-carbon and smart energy system.
Co-located with Gastech, these events will bring 30,000 global power and energy industry professionals together – government, commercial and industrial power users, gas operators, power producers and distributors, technology providers and renewable energy companies – to enhance the dialogue between the sectors that will play a significant role in the global energy transition.

Source: dmg :: events global energy

A new policy brief co-authored by the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) and the World Resources Institute (WRI) finds that increasing the share of renewables, in particular solar PV and wind, in India’s power mix, and implementing changes in cooling technologies mandated for thermal power plants would not only lower carbon emissions intensity, but also substantially reduce water withdrawal and consumption intensity of power generation.

The brief, Water Use in India’s Power Generation – Impact of Renewables and Improved Cooling Technologies to 2030, finds that depending on the future energy pathways (IRENA’s REmap 2030 and the Central Electricity Authority of India), a power sector (excluding hydroelectricity) transformation driven by solar PV and wind, coupled with improved cooling technologies in thermal and other renewable power plants, could yield as much as an 84% decrease in water withdrawal intensity by 2030, lower annual water consumption intensity by 25% and reduce carbon emissions intensity by 43%, compared to 2014 levels. It builds off of the findings of Parched Power: Water Demands, Risks, and Opportunities for India’s Power Sector, launched by WRI.

More than four-fifths of India’s electricity is generated from coal, gas and nuclear power plants which rely significantly on freshwater for cooling purposes. Moreover, the power sector’s share in national water consumption is projected to grow from 1.4 to 9% between 2025 and 2050, placing further stress on water resources. Renewable energy, with the added potential to reduce both water demand and carbon emissions, must hence be at the core of India’s energy future.

Key findings

The power sector contributes to and is affected by water stress. Rapid growth in freshwater-intensive thermal power generation can contribute to water stress in the areas where plants are located. Power generation is expected to account for nearly 9% of national water consumption by 2050 (in a businessas-usual scenario) – growing from 1.4% in 2025 (Central Water Commission, 2015) and this figure is likely to vary quite significantly from region to region. There is a mismatch between water demand and supply when usable surface water capacity and replenishable groundwater levels are considered. Water stress is particularly acute in naturally arid regions and areas where water is also needed for other uses such as irrigation. Confronted with growing risks to water and energy security, the power sector needs long-term approaches to reduce its dependence on freshwater while also meeting other environmental objectives such as reducing atmospheric, water and soil pollution.

The combination of improved power plant cooling technologies and»renewable energy technologies, especially solar PV and wind, could lessen the intensity of freshwater use and carbon intensity of the power sector. In its Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC), India committed to increasing the share of non-fossil sources in its installed power capacity to 40% by 2030. India has a related target of 175 GW of renewables capacity by 2022, including 100 GW of solar PV and 60 GW of wind. As solar PV and wind power require significantly less water than conventional and other renewable sources during the operational phase, their substantial uptake could contribute to a reduction in freshwater use as well as carbon intensity of power generation. Simultaneously, phasing out once-through cooling technologies at existing power plants and restricting their installation at new thermal plants, through enforcement of the announced regulatory water use standards, will substantially reduce water withdrawal.

By 2030, the water withdrawal intensity of the electricity generation (excluding hydropower) could be reduced by up to 84%, consumption intensity by up to 25%, and CO2 intensity by up to 43% in comparison to the 2014 baseline. Under all scenarios analysed, the Indian power sector’s freshwater and CO2 intensity (excluding hydropower) would substantially fall compared to the 2014 baseline. Even as intensities reduce, changes to absolute water withdrawal and consumption in 2030 vary. The transition from once-through to recirculating cooling systems will drastically reduce withdrawal but will increase total water consumption in most scenarios. Coupled with continuing thermal and renewable capacity development, total water consumption in 2030 is estimated to increase by up to 4 billion m3. Measures discussed in this brief to reduce freshwater and carbon intensity complement demand-side measures, such as energy efficiency improvements, thus warranting an integrated approach to power sector planning.

The joint brief was launched at the World Future Energy Summit 2018 in Abu Dhabi

Source: IRENA

Digital technologies for fossil fuel operation and maintenance are big business today, but activity is shifting towards services for distributed renewables and the connected home. New energy innovations will be centered on digital technologies and the strategic use of data, according to new research published today. A shift is coming in the energy industry from a focus on hardware to the increased importance of software in order to make systems more efficient, resilient, and digital.

Digitalization of Energy Systems, a report by Bloomberg New Energy Finance (BNEF), predicts significant shifts in the intelligence of digital technologies used in energy from today to 2025, and a big change in the sectors of the energy system that most benefit from these technologies.

Today, the biggest use of digital technologies like sensors, data collection and analytics in the energy sector is to improve the bottom line of fossil fuel generators. Revenue for digital services for fossil fuel operation and maintenance, or O&M, are estimated to be $24 billion in 2017 – some 44% of the total market size for digitalization measured by BNEF.

However, as natural gas and coal plants come offline, and those that remain become digitalized, the opportunities for new revenues from the fossil fuel sector will shrink. By 2025, digital technologies will be more intelligent and more capable, helping home owners that own rooftop solar, batteries or EVs (often termed ‘prosumers’), to become more autonomous and derive greater value from these assets. This could be through trading energy with neighbors or better management of peak power prices.

Home energy management technologies will see the most significant change in digital revenues, rising from $1 billion in 2017 to $11 billion in 2025. The largest driver for digital technology revenues in 2025 will be smart meters, growing 44% between now and 2025, to $26bn. This revenue increase matches the fall in digital revenues from fossil fuel O&M – 46% over that time period.

Digital technologies like big data, analytics and machine learning, blockchain, distributed energy resource management, and cloud computing, can help overcome some of the key challenges in the energy sector – most notably intermittency, aging grids, balancing distribution-connected generation, managing consumer self-generation, and coping with increasing system complexity.

Countries with high penetration of distributed renewables, good communications network infrastructure, and robust venture capital investment in digital technologies are likely to take rapid advantage of energy digitalization. Italy, for instance, is one of the global leaders in small-scale PV, has almost 100% high speed network coverage, and supportive regulation for digital technologies.

The U.S. will also do well, having long been a leader in digital technologies and early-stage fundraising. Australia, although ranking lower today, will move near the top of the group in 2025 due to high forecast levels of decentralized energy production. In emerging markets, countries that have beneficial government policies, foster innovative start-ups and are rolling-out network infrastructure are likely to digitalize soonest – for example Chile, Indonesia and Nigeria.

The motivation for industry digitalization will be different for each player. Generators and ‘prosumers’ are motivated by cost reduction, additional revenue streams and new services. Utilities face pressure from customers, government policy and regulation to improve their businesses. They can use digitization to streamline operations and enhance customer services.

The power sector has traditionally been served by large industrial companies selling primarily hardware, but innovation is increasingly centered on software and advanced technologies such as machine learning. Whether the winning solutions will come from industrials, start-ups, or technology companies remains to be seen.

Source: BNEF

The Brazilian energy agency, EPE and the Ministry of Mines and Energy (MME) have published the long-awaited 10-year Energy Expansion Plan, known as the PDE 2026 (Plano Decenal de Energia), with a provision of $430bn to help the country’s energy sector. According to PDE 2026, the domestic energy offer needed to drive the Brazilian economy to 2026 will be 351 Mtep. As a result, EPE forecasts that the installed capacity in the National Interconnected System (SIN) over the next decade will rise by 64 GW from 148 GW to 212 GW. Around 50% of this growth will come from non-conventional renewable sources. EPE forecasts that renewables, excluding hydropower, will achieve a 48% share of the energy mix by 2026.

Every year, Brazil publishes a 10-year proposal, the Energy Expansion Plan, which examines the estimated development of the country’s energy sector and offers a forecast of what will be achieved over the course of the decade. Due to changes in both the government and at EPE, there was no proposal last year, which is why publication of the current plan has been so eagerly anticipated.

 

Under the new reference scenario, the new PDE targets utility-scale solar to achieve 9,660 MW by 2026, rising from 21 MW in 2016. Combining these 9,660 MW with the deployment of 3.5 MW in distributed PV generation, total solar installations would exceed 13 GW by 2026. Read more...

Article published in: FuturENERGY July-August 2017

The Energy Reform has introduced a series of mechanisms that have provided business models in different fields of the energy sector with legal certainty and transparency. As a result of these efforts and the actions undertaken to comply with the world’s commitment to the environment, clean and renewable energies have grown exponentially in recent years, thanks to their capacity to supply power to both small and large areas of the country with a high degree of profitability.

Solar PV power has shown the highest level of growth and competitiveness in the clean power generation portfolio. This is in part due to a significant reduction in technology costs that have dropped 73% since 2010, and partly arising from the two power auctions, resulting from the Energy Reform, in which solar PV enjoyed a predominant share, achieving 74% and 54% of the total power projects awarded in the first and second auctions respectively.

In the first auction alone, the 12 projects awarded to the solar sector represent an investment of $2 billion that will generate a potential impact on the national GDP of 12 billion pesos, due to the development of 1,500 MW of solar power. This, in turn, will reduce greenhouse gas emissions by an estimated 2 million tonnes of CO2 per annum.Read more…

Asolmex
The Mexican Solar PV Association

Article published in: FuturENERGY July-August 2017

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Siemens and The AES Corporation has announced their agreement to form a new global energy storage technology and services company under the name Fluence. The joint venture will bring together AES’ ten years of industry-defining experience deploying energy storage in seven countries with over a century of Siemens’ energy technology leadership and its global sales presence in more than 160 countries. Combining the proven AES Advancion and Siemens Siestorage energy storage platforms with expanded services, Fluence will offer customers a wider variety of options to meet the challenges of a rapidly transforming energy landscape. The company will empower customers around the world to better navigate the fragmented but rapidly growing energy storage sector and meet their pressing needs for scalable, flexible, and cost-competitive energy storage solutions.

Siemens and AES will have joint control of the company with each holding a 50 percent stake. Fluence’s global headquarters will be located in the Washington, DC area with additional offices located in Erlangen, Germany and select cities worldwide. The transaction is expected to close in the fourth quarter of calendar year 2017, subject to regulatory and other approvals.

 

Fluence will operate independently of its parent companies, combining the robust capabilities and expertise from Siemens’ battery-based energy storage solutions group under the Energy Management division with AES’ subsidiary, AES Energy Storage. AES and Siemens are currently ranked among the leading energy storage integrators worldwide by Navigant Research. Together, the two companies have deployed or have been awarded 48 projects totaling 463 MW of battery-based energy storage across 13 countries, including the world’s largest lithium-ion battery-based energy storage project near San Diego, California.

As the energy storage market expands, customers face the challenge of finding a trusted technology partner with an appropriate portfolio and a profound knowledge of the power sector. Fluence will fill this major gap in the market. With the global reach of an experienced international sales force as well as Siemens’ leading technology platform Siestorage at its disposal, Fluence will be perfectly equipped to serve this very interesting market,” said Ralf Christian, CEO of Siemens’ Energy Management Division.

Over the past ten years, AES has become a global leader in utility-scale, battery-based energy storage. Today AES’ Advancion platform is present in seven countries with more than 200 MW of energy storage deployed, including the largest installed system of its kind in the world,” said Andrés Gluski, AES President and CEO. “Partnering with Siemens to form Fluence will offer both large and small customers the full gamut of proven, state-of-the-art energy storage solutions in over 160 countries. This will accelerate the integration of renewables into the energy network of tomorrow.”

The grid-connected energy storage sector is expected to expand from a total installed capacity of three gigawatts (GW) at the end of 2016 to 28 GW by 2022 according to IHS Markit, which is equivalent to the power used by 18.6 million households. By incorporating energy storage across the electric power network, utilities and communities around the world will optimize their infrastructure investments, increase network flexibility and resiliency, and accelerate cost-effective integration of renewable electricity generation.

The AES Advancion and Siemens Siestorage technology platforms each support a multitude of energy storage applications, together representing an industry-leading suite of choices for customers. Siemens brings its experience in microgrid and islanding applications, renewable hybrid technology, black-start capability, and consumer peak shaving, building on its intimate knowledge of customer power needs as a leading global original equipment manufacturer (OEM). AES brings its deep expertise in utility-scale battery-based energy storage solutions for flexible peaking capacity, ancillary services such as frequency regulation, transmission and distribution reliability, and renewable integration applications dating back a decade and representing several of the largest energy storage installations in the world.

Source: Siemens

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Italy ©Wind Power Works. GWEC

A new report from the Global Wind Energy Council (GWEC), Global Wind Energy Outlook 2016, forecasts highly promising growth for future wind power capacity around the world.

The report highlights that the global wind industry enjoyed a record year in 2015, closing with an annual installed capacity of 63 GW and a cumulative installed capacity of 433 GW. With a 17% increase over the previous year, wind power was the most popular choice for new generating capacity. Globally, almost US$110bn was invested in new wind power development.

GWEC reports Asia is the world’s largest regional wind market, with a total installed capacity of 175.8 GW. At national level, China leads the wind industry, with cumulative wind power installations (145 GW) at the end of 2015 greater than all EU countries combined (141.6 GW).

While 28 countries now have an installed wind power capacity of over 1 GW, eight countries now have more than 10 GW installed.

The report provides forecasts for future wind capacity in 2050 varying from a conservative 2,870 GW under the International Energy Agency’s (IEA) New Policies Scenario, to a more ambitious 5,806 GW under the GWEC Advanced Scenario. Under the GWEC Advanced Scenario, wind power is projected to provide at least 36% of global electricity demand in 2050. By 2030 wind power could reach 2,110 GW and supply up to 20% of global electricity, creating 2.4 million new jobs and reducing CO2 emissions by more than 3.3 billion tonnes per year, as well as attracting annual investments of some €200bn.

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