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energy storage

The power sector is witnessing significant changes. As 2019 draws to a close, GlobalData, looks at the key trends that will shape the industry in 2020, ranging from electric vehicles to corporate power purchase agreements (PPAs).

Electric vehicles

The adoption of electric vehicles (EVs) is set to continue on the steep trajectory witnessed in the last few years. The global EV fleet, which stood at over 5.1 million in 2018, is expected to reach around 130 million by 2030 as per International Energy Agency (IEA) forecasts.

Governments across the world are setting targets for deployments of EVs and these policy signals are encouraging industry stakeholders to invest across the EV supply chain. In addition, large power utilities such as EDF, E.ON and Enel in Europe have been investing in EV charging station infrastructure, and this market is witnessing consolidation – a trend that is expected to continue. Increasingly, power utilities are collaborating with EV manufacturers to boost their offerings in areas such as EV charging, vehicle-to-grid (V2G) services, energy storage and renewable energy sources. Oil majors such as Shell, BP and Total are also placing huge bets in this market through acquisitions.

Digitalization

Power utilities, which have traditionally been averse to the adoption of new technologies, are now realizing their benefits and offering heavy investment. An emerging technology trends survey conducted by GlobalData reveals that cyber security, big data, cloud computing, robotics and Internet of Things (IoT) are being seen as the top five technologies that will have the maximum impact on the sector over the next three years.

Cybersecurity is receiving the maximum attention from power companies in order to protect grids from cyber-attacks. Power utilities realize the crippling effect such attacks can have on the grid and are hence willing to invest heavily to protect against them.

With ever more data coming out of the customers’ meters, utilities are focusing on data analytics for load forecasting, generation planning, managing peaks and increasing customers’ awareness regarding energy efficiency. Big data and cloud computing are useful tools that are aiding these initiatives. Cloud models are helping utilities to lower their IT capital expenditure (capex) and offer unlimited computing and advanced analytics, while IoT is helping power companies to remotely monitor and manage their assets. Utilities are also able to conduct predictive maintenance of their assets with the assistance of IoT.

Grid-scale battery storage

Energy storage installation among end-users (renewable energy generators, grid operators and distributed generation) is projected to witness larger growth due to smart grid development. The battery energy storage system (BESS) market, which is estimated at 4.9 gigawatt (GW) in 2018, is forecast to reach 22.2GW by 2023.

The economies of energy storage in a wide range of applications, coupled with the falling cost of systems, will likely result in the rapid growth of battery energy storage solutions. Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are emerging as crucial for energy storage, and the increasing growth of EVs has resulted in advancements in lithium-ion technologies and a steady decline in the prices of lithium-based batteries.

Several energy storage projects in the pipeline have been accelerated by incentive programs. The deployment is expected to grow, due to a large number of countries opting for storage utilization to support their power sector transformation. The US introduced several bills and policies related to energy storage, and the country has comprehensive incentive programs supporting battery utilization. In the meanwhile, India published a national energy storage mission, outlining the country’s ambition to become a market leader in the manufacture of batteries. Similarly, China and Germany are exploiting opportunities to capitalize on the growing market for batteries.

Microgrids

Microgrids will continue to make inroads in the power sector, driven by the need for resiliency, energy security and the electrification of remote areas. This year has seen a number of microgrid projects being announced by companies across the world. Utilities such as Duke Energy, EDF, Engie and AusNet have been involved in the development of microgrid projects, the scale of which has also been increasing with projects as large as the 100MW Armonia Microgrid Project in Palau being developed.

Policy developments have been encouraging. For example, Hawaii has become the first state to initiate microgrid tariffs. California is also following close behind, trying to enact legislation in this direction.

Corporate PPAs

Large corporates are increasingly signing PPAs with generators to meet their power needs. Most of these are signed with renewable energy generators, enabling them to increase the share of renewable energy in their total consumption. Companies such as Google, Amazon, Facebook and Microsoft have continued to sign PPAs during 2019 and this trend is expected to continue in the future due to the expansion of the data centers market increasing their power requirements.

Retailers such as Tesco and Walmart have also been involved in signing PPAs in 2019. The rise in corporate PPAs is fuelled by the withdrawal of feed-in-tariffs (FITs) and other incentives for wind and solar power coupled with the move towards auction mechanisms. Under these circumstances, corporate PPAs offer an opportunity for developers to sell their power profitably.

Source: GlobalData

i-DE, Iberdrola’s electricity distribution arm, has inaugurated the first electrical energy storage system with lithium-ion batteries for distribution networks in Spain. The project, which is the first in the country, is located in the Murcian municipal district of Caravaca de la Cruz and will improve the quality of the energy supply in the surrounding area, as well as the use of solar energy generated in the area.

The storage system, with a capacity of 3 MWh, can operate in isolation and, in the event of an interruption in supply, will be able provide up to five hours of electricity to the main districts in the surrounding area: Cañada de la Cruz, Inazares, Moralejo, Barranda, El Moral and Los Royos.

Adverse climate and rural environment

The special circumstances in the rural environment around Caravaca de la Cruz have determined the choice of this enclave for this innovative solution.

In recent years, the area has been recording very adverse weather conditions that cause incidents in the distribution network. Also, it is an area consisting of various small and scattered centres of consumption, so a fault can leave several villages without service. To this is added the long distances that have to be covered to reach the source of the problem, which further complicates the resolution of incidents.

The traditional solution would have been to construct 22 km of overhead power lines, crossing environmental protection areas. This is the reason why an innovative solution was chosen, based on energy storage installed at a point where overhead cables intersect, allowing several areas to be served with a single battery.

The project has shown that batteries can improve the continuity of supply in contingency situations, as well as the use of photovoltaic plants connected to the impacted grid, including in isolation using only renewable energy. The batteries, in short, constitute a complement to the conventional local operation.

Smart storage system

There are several large photovoltaic plants in Caravaca de la Cruz that upload electricity to the grid during the hours with the most intense sunlight. A battery with these characteristics is able to adjust the voltage to the appropriate values and be ready to intervene as a second source of power supply in the event of a power failure.

To achieve this, it has a smart storage system that is able to assess the situation and decide what part of the network will remain in operation from the battery, taking into account actual consumption at that time, the generation capacity of photovoltaic plants nearby and the state of charge of the battery, among other aspects.

The system estimates both the consumption and the potential renewable generation power of the solar plants in the area at that time and for the following hours. It can, thus, take advantage of local power generation and, in addition, absorb excess energy, in case of excess production.

The combination of this battery and the electricity produced by the photovoltaic plants in the area will significantly reduce the interruption times in the power supply during an emergency.
Storage and grids, the keys to the energy model of the future

Storage systems are key to addressing the challenges of the energy transition and are destined to become an essential element in the electrical system of the future. This is because they allow the quality of the electricity supply to be improved, ensuring the stability and reliability of the network and integrating and harnessing the energy generated by renewable sources.

Iberdrola is a leader in energy storage, with an installed pumping technology capacity of 4,400 MW, which is currently the most efficient method. It is also undertaking numerous initiatives that combine the use of batteries with renewable energy – wind and photovoltaic – projects, as well as those oriented towards improving the quality of the supply by its grids, as is the case with the installation in Caravaca de La Cruz.

Electricity distribution networks are the circulatory system in the new energy model and an essential platform in the transition toward a decarbonised economy based on competitive, renewable energy. Transforming the grids into smart infrastructure responds to the challenges of an electrified economy, with greater integration of renewables, sustainable mobility, smart cities and consumption models and distributed generation.

In this context, i-DE has allocated 2 billion euros to digitising its electricity networks, with the installation of almost 11 million digital meters, together with the infrastructure that supports them, and the adaptation of around 90,000 transformer centres in Spain, to which it has incorporated remote management, supervision and automation capabilities. It is also currently working on the digitalisation of the low voltage network and is investing in control and operation systems.

I-DE, smart electricity grids

The activities of i-DE the new name for Iberdrola’s electricity distribution arm – include the planning, construction and maintenance of power lines, substations, transformer centres and other infrastructure, as well as operating the system in a way that efficiently distributes energy among the various agents that produce and consume it.

Iberdrola operates a distribution system consisting of 270,000 km of power lines in Spain and is present in 10 Autonomous Regions serving a population of 17 million. In 2018, Iberdrola’s distribution business invested almost €500 m in Spain in projects designed to improve its procedures and customer service channels; complete the roll-out of nearly 11 million smart meters and the supervision and automation of the grid.

Iberdrola’s network business is a significant driver of the Spanish economy, generating more than 10,000 jobs in total (both direct and through its suppliers). In 2018, the company made purchases to the value of €500 m from 2,000 local companies.

Source: Iberdrola

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Este mapa muestra la tecnología con el LCOE de referencia más bajo en cada mercado, excluyendo subsidios o créditos fiscales. CCGT: turbina de gas en ciclo combinado / This map shows the technology with the lowest benchmark LCOE in each market, excluding subsidies or tax credits. CCGT: Combined-cycle gas turbine. Fuente/Source: BloombergNEF.

Every half year, BloombergNEF runs its Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE) Update, a worldwide assessment of the cost-competitiveness of different power generating and energy storage technologies – excluding subsidies. BNEF latest Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE) figures show a global benchmark LCOE for onshore wind and PV projects at $47 and $51/MWh. The numbers are down 6% and 11% respectively from six months ago, mainly owing to cheaper equipment. The offshore wind LCOE benchmark sits at $78/MWh down 32% from from last year.

These are the key, high-level results for the second half of 2019:

New solar and onshore wind power plants have now reached parity with average wholesale prices in California and parts of Europe. In China, their levelized costs are now below the average regulated coal power price, the reference price tag in the country. These technologies are winning the race as the cheapest sources of new generation with two-thirds of the global population living in countries where PV or wind are cheaper than coal and gas power plants.

BNEF’s global benchmark levelized cost figures for onshore wind and PV projects financed in the last six months are at $47 and $51/MWh, down 6% and 11% respectively compared to the first half of 2019. For wind this is mainly due the fall in the price of wind turbines, 7% lower on average globally compared to the end of 2018. In China, the world’s largest solar market, the capex of utility-scale PV plants has dropped 11% in the last six months, reaching $0.57 million per MW. Weak demand for new plants in China has left developers and engineering, procurement and construction firms eager for business, and this has put pressure on capex.

BNEF estimates that some of the cheapest PV projects financed recently will be able to achieve an LCOE of $27-36/MWh, assuming competitive returns for their equity investors. Those can be found in India, Chile and Australia. Best-in-class onshore wind farms in Brazil, India, Mexico and Texas can reach levelized costs as low as $26-31/MWh already.

Offshore wind has seen the fastest cost declines, down 32% from just a year ago and 12% compared to the first half of 2019. BNEF’s current global benchmark LCOE estimate is $78/MWh. New offshore wind projects throughout Europe now deploy turbines with power ratings up to 10 MW, unlocking capex and opex savings. In Denmark and the Netherlands, we expect the most recent projects financed to achieve $53-64/MWh excluding transmission.

Source: BNEF

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Instalaciones globales de almacenamiento de energía / Global cumulative energy storage installations

Energy storage installations, including stationary batteries used in eight applications but excluding pumped hydro storage, around the world will multiply exponentially, from a modest 9 GW/17 GWh deployed as of 2018 to 1,095 GW/2,850 GWh by 2040, according to the latest forecast from research company BloombergNEF (BNEF).

This 122-fold boom of stationary energy storage over the next two decades will require $662 billion of investment, according to BNEF estimates. It will be made possible by further sharp declines in the cost of lithium-ion batteries, on top of an 85% reduction in the 2010-18 period.

BNEF’s Energy Storage Outlook 2019, predicts a further halving of lithium-ion battery costs per kilowatt-hour by 2030, as demand takes off in two different markets – stationary storage and electric vehicles. The report goes on to model the impact of this on a global electricity system increasingly penetrated by low-cost wind and solar.

Two big changes in the report are that BNEF has raised its estimate of the investment that will go into energy storage by 2040 by more than $40 billion, and that BNEF now thinks the majority of new capacity will be utility-scale, rather than behind-the-meter at homes and businesses.

BNEF’s analysis suggests that cheaper batteries can be used in more and more applications. These include energy shifting (moving in time the dispatch of electricity to the grid, often from times of excess solar and wind generation), peaking in the bulk power system (to deal with demand spikes), as well as for customers looking to save on their energy bills by buying electricity at cheap hours and using it later.

In the near term, renewables-plus-storage, especially solar-plus-storage, has become a major driver for battery build. This is a new era of dispatchable renewables, based on new contract structures between developer and grid.

Just 10 countries are on course to represent almost three quarters of the global market in gigawatt terms, according to BNEF’s forecast. South Korea is the lead market in 2019, but will soon cede that position, with China and the U.S. far in front by 2040. The remaining significant markets include India, Germany, Latin America, Southeast Asia, France, Australia and the U.K.

There is a fundamental transition developing in the power system and transportation sector. Falling wind, solar and battery costs mean wind and solar are set to make up almost 40% of world electricity in 2040, up from 7% today. Meanwhile passenger electric vehicles could become a third of the global passenger vehicle fleet by 2040, up from less than half a percent today, adding huge scale to the battery manufacturing sector.

Demand for storage will increase to balance the higher proportion of variable, renewable generation in the electricity system. Batteries will increasingly be chosen to manage this dynamic supply and demand mix.

The report finds that energy storage will become a practical alternative to new-build electricity generation or network reinforcement. Behind-the-meter storage will also increasingly be used to provide system services on top of customer applications.

The total demand for batteries from the stationary storage and electric transport sectors is forecast to be 4,584 GWh by 2040, providing a major opportunity for battery makers and miners of component metals such as lithium, cobalt and nickel.

Source: BNEF

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Wärtsilä has signed an EPC contract for a 100 MW/100 MWh total capacity energy storage project in South East Asia. The energy storage system facility, including the Greensmith GEMS advanced software platform and GridSolv, will be used for grid support purposes.

Wärtsilä is enabling the transition towards 100% renewable energy around the world by designing and building flexible systems that integrate renewables, traditional thermal assets and energy storage.

In 2018, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) committed to meeting 23 percent of its primary energy needs from renewables by 2025. The region is aiming to leverage its abundant wind and solar resources and reduce its reliance on fossil fuels, especially as grid systems develop and economies grow. Wärtsilä’s 100 MW/100 MWh energy storage project will help provide some part of the reliability necessary to support South East Asia’s transition to carbon-free resources.

The Greensmith GEMS platform has the ability to react near-instantly to smooth the integration of renewables, enabling the grid to emerge more stable and responsive. Grid support applications of GEMS include voltage & frequency regulation, reactive power support, spinning reserve, ramp rate optimization, renewable energy output smoothing and energy arbitrage. GEMS will make it possible for grid operators to rely on renewables as baseload power.

Source: Wärtsilä

Portada_Sep_CongresoIENER-Mayo19

Special report published as a separate issue to the May 2019 edition of FuturENERGY for special distribution at the II International Congress on Energy Engineering, iENER’19, an event celebrated from 26 to 27 June in Madrid, where FuturENERGY had an active presence as media partner. This special report includes various sections focused on: natural gas, renewable gases, energy storage, e-mobility, DHC networks and energy efficiency.

This special report includes the following:

COVER STORY
AESA – Energy assessment: CHP, bioenergy, zero emissions and energy efficiency

NATURAL GAS AND ITS APPLICATIONS
The new natural gas revolution
Gas engines a key actor in the new energy scenario
New range of gas engines. Up to 50% efficiency, with very low emissions

RENEWABLE GASES
The optimal role for renewable gas in a decarbonised energy system

ENERGY STORAGE
Unlocking PV capacity with energy storage
Global battery energy storage market to reach US$13.13bn by 2023

E-MOBILITY
The potential and impact of smart charging electric vehicles on the energy transition
Smart solutions for sustainable mobility
Taking e-mobility to the next level. Charging the electrci vehicle with solar energy

EFFICIENT HVAC
Txomin Enea district heating network: innovation and efficiency in urban planning

ENERGY EFFICIENCY. INDUSTRIAL SECTOR
What type of energy management does industry need? A key to sustainability, efficiency and cost effectiveness
Predictive maintenance technology for electric motors

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE REPORT

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The in-depth study, which analyses hydrogen’s current state of play and offers guidance on its future development, is being launched by Dr Fatih Birol, the IEA’s Executive Director, alongside Mr Hiroshige Seko, Japan’s Minister of Economy, Trade and Industry, on the occasion of the meeting of G20 energy and environment ministers in Karuizawa, Japan.

Hydrogen can help to tackle various critical energy challenges, including helping to store the variable output from renewables like solar PV and wind to better match demand. It offers ways to decarbonise a range of sectors (including long-haul transport, chemicals, and iron and steel) where it is proving difficult to meaningfully reduce emissions. It can also help to improve air quality and strengthen energy security.

A wide variety of fuels are able to produce hydrogen, including renewables, nuclear, natural gas, coal and oil. Hydrogen can be transported as a gas by pipelines or in liquid form by ships, much like liquefied natural gas (LNG). It can also be transformed into electricity and methane to power homes and feed industry, and into fuels for cars, trucks, ships and planes.

To build on this momentum, the IEA report offers seven key recommendations to help governments, companies and other stakeholders to scale up hydrogen projects around the world. These include four areas:

  • Making industrial ports the nerve centres for scaling up the use of clean hydrogen;
  • Building on existing infrastructure, such as natural gas pipelines;
  • Expanding the use of hydrogen in transport by using it to power cars, trucks and buses that run on key routes;
  • Launching the hydrogen trade’s first international shipping routes.

 

The report notes that hydrogen still faces significant challenges. Producing hydrogen from low-carbon energy is costly at the moment, the development of hydrogen infrastructure is slow and holding back widespread adoption, and some regulations currently limit the development of a clean hydrogen industry.

Today, hydrogen is already being used on an industrial scale, but it is almost entirely supplied from natural gas and coal. Its production, mainly for the chemicals and refining industries, is responsible for 830 million tonnes of CO2 emissions per year. That’s the equivalent of the annual carbon emissions of the United Kingdom and Indonesia combined.

Reducing emissions from existing hydrogen production is a challenge but also represents an opportunity to increase the scale of clean hydrogen worldwide. One approach is to capture and store or utilise the CO2 from hydrogen production from fossil fuels. There are currently several industrial facilities around the world that use this process, and more are in the pipeline, but a much greater number is required to make a significant impact.

Another approach is for industries to secure greater supplies of hydrogen from clean electricity. In the past two decades, more than 200 projects have started operation to convert electricity and water into hydrogen to reduce emissions.

Expanding the use of clean hydrogen in other sectors – such as cars, trucks, steel and heating buildings – is another important challenge. There are currently around 11,200 hydrogen-powered cars on the road worldwide. Existing government targets call for that number to increase dramatically to 2.5M by 2030.

Policy makers need to make sure market conditions are well adapted for reaching such ambitious goals. The recent successes of solar PV, wind, batteries and electric vehicles have shown that policy and technology innovation have the power to build global clean energy industries.

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2018 was a remarkable year for stationary energy storage. Governments and policymakers around the world are beginning to wake up to the value batteries can offer to the grid, both in terms of flexibility and decarbonisation. Over 6 GWh was deployed, and market leaders such as Tesla expect to double their deployments for 2019.

The progress is thanks in no small part to falling Li-ion battery costs, driven by the economies of scale of the electric car industry: plug-in passenger electrics topped five million on roads globally at the beginning of 2019. Indeed, as costs have fallen, projects with longer duration battery systems have become feasible (many new grid-level projects are now four hours). This has created opportunities for storage developers: in some scenarios, it has even enabled the displacement of gas peaker plants, for grids aiming to fully decarbonise. As detailed in the new IDTechEx report, “Batteries for Stationary Energy Storage 2019–2029”, enormous projects are underway.

For example, the famous ‘100 MW (120 MWh) in 100 days’ challenge from Elon Musk to the South Australian government, a previous world record and now operational, is a fraction of the planned 730 MWh system Tesla will install in Moss Landing, California, to help replace three ageing gas plants.

The U.S. has led the industry for a number of years; a sizable mandate from California coupled with big-budget financial incentives have underpinned the country’s deployments, as well as the batteries procured for frequency response in PJM’s territory from 2012 – 2017 (now saturated). In 2018, landmark rulings like FERC Order 841, ambitious decarbonisation and renewables targets in multiple states, and growing momentum behind state-wide energy storage mandates will pave the way for the future of energy storage in the country.

The global picture is also changing: both China & South Korea topped 1GWh in yearly deployments in 2018, with India also commissioning some of its first large-scale projects. With such rapid progress, teething problems have emerged: to meet the sudden demand in South Korea, ESS makers compromised on quality, leading to a government shutdown of hundreds of public battery systems that spontaneously caught fire. The issue was reported by Korean news outlets to be faulty battery management systems.

Despite hiccups, the ambitious levels of renewables integration in many of these countries will nevertheless require massive amounts of energy storage to manage moving forward.

Source: IDTechEx

The technology group Wärtsilä has commissioned its 6 MW/6 MWh energy management and storage system project for its customer ContourGlobal Bonaire on the Caribbean island of Bonaire. With Phase One complete, the island no longer has to curtail wind resources. It has nearly doubled renewable energy penetration, and prepared the system for additional capacity to accommodate peak demand during tourist season. ContourGlobal’s entire island grid is managed and operated by Greensmith GEMS advanced software platform.

The utility’s phased approach allows time for system operators to add new hybrid solutions and spread out costs, and leaves room for new technologies to come online. For Bonaire, Phase One involves GEMS managing an optimising dispatch and operation of existing generation assets. It also provides spinning reserve requirement with energy storage to reduce fuel consumption and emissions. Furthermore, Phase One involves unlocking curtailed wind energy and improved system reliability by providing frequency and voltage control. To optimise the system GEMS now factors in real-time asset performance, as well as load and renewable energy forecasts. With Phase One complete, GEMS can balance Bonaire’s resources and seamlessly optimise thermal, wind and energy storage assets.

During the commissioning tests, several load rejections were tested, including loss of wind, loss of engines and loss of demand, and in every circumstance GEMS instantaneously tracked and maintained the quality of the generation avoiding the load shedding of the grid. This is just one example of how this project will improve operations through automation while helping the island avoid blackouts, achieve greater efficiencies and use more wind power.

Commissioning of the project puts Bonaire on the path to achieving its 100% renewable target. This is the beginning of a longer-term plan to fully modernise the island’s system and add additional capacity and renewable energy generation to the grid. ContourGlobal Bonaire commissioned the project after years of seeking solutions to integrate more renewable power into the existing island grid.

The next phases for the Bonaire project will replace outdated thermal technology with five new engines and add more wind and solar to the generation mix. As the island grid increases in size, GEMS will enable further renewable penetration and lower the cost of energy. GEMS machine learning and AI capability will incorporate weather, electricity demand and other variables and data into its forecasting models. This data will inform the automated decisions managing ContourGlobal’s entire fleet.

Source: Wärtsilä

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In a world first, Siemens Gamesa Renewable Energy (SGRE) has today begun operation of its electric thermal energy storage system (ETES). During the opening ceremony, Energy State Secretary Andreas Feicht, Hamburg’s First Mayor Peter Tschentscher, Siemens Gamesa CEO Markus Tacke and project partners Hamburg Energie GmbH and Hamburg University of Technology (TUHH) welcomed the achievement of this milestone. The innovative storage technology makes it possible to store large quantities of energy cost-effectively and thus decouple electricity generation and use.

The heat storage facility, which was ceremonially opened today in Hamburg-Altenwerder, contains around 1,000 tonnes of volcanic rock as an energy storage medium. It is fed with electrical energy converted into hot air by means of a resistance heater and a blower that heats the rock to 750°C. When demand peaks, ETES uses a steam turbine for the re-electrification of the stored energy. The ETES pilot plant can thus store up to 130 MWh of thermal energy for a week. In addition, the storage capacity of the system remains constant throughout the charging cycles.

The aim of the pilot plant is to deliver system evidence of the storage on the grid and to test the heat storage extensively. In a next step, Siemens Gamesa plans to use its storage technology in commercial projects and scale up the storage capacity and power. The goal is to store energy in the range of several gigawatt hours (GWh) in the near future. One gigawatt hour is the equivalent to the daily electricity consumption of around 50,000 households.

The Institute for Engineering Thermodynamics at Hamburg University of Technology and the local utility company Hamburg Energie are partners in the innovative Future Energy Solutions project, which is funded by the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Energy within the “6. Energieforschungsprogramm” research programme. TU Hamburg carries out research into the thermodynamic fundamentals of the solid bulk technology used.

By using standard components, it is possible to convert decommissioned conventional power plants into green storage facilities (second-life option). Hamburg Energie is responsible for marketing the stored energy on the electricity market. The energy provider is developing highly flexible digital control system platforms for virtual power plants. Connected to such an IT platform, ETES can optimally store renewable energy at maximum yield.

Source: Siemens Gamesa

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