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energy storage

The in-depth study, which analyses hydrogen’s current state of play and offers guidance on its future development, is being launched by Dr Fatih Birol, the IEA’s Executive Director, alongside Mr Hiroshige Seko, Japan’s Minister of Economy, Trade and Industry, on the occasion of the meeting of G20 energy and environment ministers in Karuizawa, Japan.

Hydrogen can help to tackle various critical energy challenges, including helping to store the variable output from renewables like solar PV and wind to better match demand. It offers ways to decarbonise a range of sectors (including long-haul transport, chemicals, and iron and steel) where it is proving difficult to meaningfully reduce emissions. It can also help to improve air quality and strengthen energy security.

A wide variety of fuels are able to produce hydrogen, including renewables, nuclear, natural gas, coal and oil. Hydrogen can be transported as a gas by pipelines or in liquid form by ships, much like liquefied natural gas (LNG). It can also be transformed into electricity and methane to power homes and feed industry, and into fuels for cars, trucks, ships and planes.

To build on this momentum, the IEA report offers seven key recommendations to help governments, companies and other stakeholders to scale up hydrogen projects around the world. These include four areas:

  • Making industrial ports the nerve centres for scaling up the use of clean hydrogen;
  • Building on existing infrastructure, such as natural gas pipelines;
  • Expanding the use of hydrogen in transport by using it to power cars, trucks and buses that run on key routes;
  • Launching the hydrogen trade’s first international shipping routes.

 

The report notes that hydrogen still faces significant challenges. Producing hydrogen from low-carbon energy is costly at the moment, the development of hydrogen infrastructure is slow and holding back widespread adoption, and some regulations currently limit the development of a clean hydrogen industry.

Today, hydrogen is already being used on an industrial scale, but it is almost entirely supplied from natural gas and coal. Its production, mainly for the chemicals and refining industries, is responsible for 830 million tonnes of CO2 emissions per year. That’s the equivalent of the annual carbon emissions of the United Kingdom and Indonesia combined.

Reducing emissions from existing hydrogen production is a challenge but also represents an opportunity to increase the scale of clean hydrogen worldwide. One approach is to capture and store or utilise the CO2 from hydrogen production from fossil fuels. There are currently several industrial facilities around the world that use this process, and more are in the pipeline, but a much greater number is required to make a significant impact.

Another approach is for industries to secure greater supplies of hydrogen from clean electricity. In the past two decades, more than 200 projects have started operation to convert electricity and water into hydrogen to reduce emissions.

Expanding the use of clean hydrogen in other sectors – such as cars, trucks, steel and heating buildings – is another important challenge. There are currently around 11,200 hydrogen-powered cars on the road worldwide. Existing government targets call for that number to increase dramatically to 2.5M by 2030.

Policy makers need to make sure market conditions are well adapted for reaching such ambitious goals. The recent successes of solar PV, wind, batteries and electric vehicles have shown that policy and technology innovation have the power to build global clean energy industries.

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2018 was a remarkable year for stationary energy storage. Governments and policymakers around the world are beginning to wake up to the value batteries can offer to the grid, both in terms of flexibility and decarbonisation. Over 6 GWh was deployed, and market leaders such as Tesla expect to double their deployments for 2019.

The progress is thanks in no small part to falling Li-ion battery costs, driven by the economies of scale of the electric car industry: plug-in passenger electrics topped five million on roads globally at the beginning of 2019. Indeed, as costs have fallen, projects with longer duration battery systems have become feasible (many new grid-level projects are now four hours). This has created opportunities for storage developers: in some scenarios, it has even enabled the displacement of gas peaker plants, for grids aiming to fully decarbonise. As detailed in the new IDTechEx report, “Batteries for Stationary Energy Storage 2019–2029”, enormous projects are underway.

For example, the famous ‘100 MW (120 MWh) in 100 days’ challenge from Elon Musk to the South Australian government, a previous world record and now operational, is a fraction of the planned 730 MWh system Tesla will install in Moss Landing, California, to help replace three ageing gas plants.

The U.S. has led the industry for a number of years; a sizable mandate from California coupled with big-budget financial incentives have underpinned the country’s deployments, as well as the batteries procured for frequency response in PJM’s territory from 2012 – 2017 (now saturated). In 2018, landmark rulings like FERC Order 841, ambitious decarbonisation and renewables targets in multiple states, and growing momentum behind state-wide energy storage mandates will pave the way for the future of energy storage in the country.

The global picture is also changing: both China & South Korea topped 1GWh in yearly deployments in 2018, with India also commissioning some of its first large-scale projects. With such rapid progress, teething problems have emerged: to meet the sudden demand in South Korea, ESS makers compromised on quality, leading to a government shutdown of hundreds of public battery systems that spontaneously caught fire. The issue was reported by Korean news outlets to be faulty battery management systems.

Despite hiccups, the ambitious levels of renewables integration in many of these countries will nevertheless require massive amounts of energy storage to manage moving forward.

Source: IDTechEx

The technology group Wärtsilä has commissioned its 6 MW/6 MWh energy management and storage system project for its customer ContourGlobal Bonaire on the Caribbean island of Bonaire. With Phase One complete, the island no longer has to curtail wind resources. It has nearly doubled renewable energy penetration, and prepared the system for additional capacity to accommodate peak demand during tourist season. ContourGlobal’s entire island grid is managed and operated by Greensmith GEMS advanced software platform.

The utility’s phased approach allows time for system operators to add new hybrid solutions and spread out costs, and leaves room for new technologies to come online. For Bonaire, Phase One involves GEMS managing an optimising dispatch and operation of existing generation assets. It also provides spinning reserve requirement with energy storage to reduce fuel consumption and emissions. Furthermore, Phase One involves unlocking curtailed wind energy and improved system reliability by providing frequency and voltage control. To optimise the system GEMS now factors in real-time asset performance, as well as load and renewable energy forecasts. With Phase One complete, GEMS can balance Bonaire’s resources and seamlessly optimise thermal, wind and energy storage assets.

During the commissioning tests, several load rejections were tested, including loss of wind, loss of engines and loss of demand, and in every circumstance GEMS instantaneously tracked and maintained the quality of the generation avoiding the load shedding of the grid. This is just one example of how this project will improve operations through automation while helping the island avoid blackouts, achieve greater efficiencies and use more wind power.

Commissioning of the project puts Bonaire on the path to achieving its 100% renewable target. This is the beginning of a longer-term plan to fully modernise the island’s system and add additional capacity and renewable energy generation to the grid. ContourGlobal Bonaire commissioned the project after years of seeking solutions to integrate more renewable power into the existing island grid.

The next phases for the Bonaire project will replace outdated thermal technology with five new engines and add more wind and solar to the generation mix. As the island grid increases in size, GEMS will enable further renewable penetration and lower the cost of energy. GEMS machine learning and AI capability will incorporate weather, electricity demand and other variables and data into its forecasting models. This data will inform the automated decisions managing ContourGlobal’s entire fleet.

Source: Wärtsilä

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In a world first, Siemens Gamesa Renewable Energy (SGRE) has today begun operation of its electric thermal energy storage system (ETES). During the opening ceremony, Energy State Secretary Andreas Feicht, Hamburg’s First Mayor Peter Tschentscher, Siemens Gamesa CEO Markus Tacke and project partners Hamburg Energie GmbH and Hamburg University of Technology (TUHH) welcomed the achievement of this milestone. The innovative storage technology makes it possible to store large quantities of energy cost-effectively and thus decouple electricity generation and use.

The heat storage facility, which was ceremonially opened today in Hamburg-Altenwerder, contains around 1,000 tonnes of volcanic rock as an energy storage medium. It is fed with electrical energy converted into hot air by means of a resistance heater and a blower that heats the rock to 750°C. When demand peaks, ETES uses a steam turbine for the re-electrification of the stored energy. The ETES pilot plant can thus store up to 130 MWh of thermal energy for a week. In addition, the storage capacity of the system remains constant throughout the charging cycles.

The aim of the pilot plant is to deliver system evidence of the storage on the grid and to test the heat storage extensively. In a next step, Siemens Gamesa plans to use its storage technology in commercial projects and scale up the storage capacity and power. The goal is to store energy in the range of several gigawatt hours (GWh) in the near future. One gigawatt hour is the equivalent to the daily electricity consumption of around 50,000 households.

The Institute for Engineering Thermodynamics at Hamburg University of Technology and the local utility company Hamburg Energie are partners in the innovative Future Energy Solutions project, which is funded by the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Energy within the “6. Energieforschungsprogramm” research programme. TU Hamburg carries out research into the thermodynamic fundamentals of the solid bulk technology used.

By using standard components, it is possible to convert decommissioned conventional power plants into green storage facilities (second-life option). Hamburg Energie is responsible for marketing the stored energy on the electricity market. The energy provider is developing highly flexible digital control system platforms for virtual power plants. Connected to such an IT platform, ETES can optimally store renewable energy at maximum yield.

Source: Siemens Gamesa

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Saft has extended its range of containerized lithium-ion (Li-ion) Energy Storage Systems (ESS) with the Intensium Max 20 High Energy (HE) that offers 2.5 MWh storage capacity in a standard 20-foot container. With the new fully integrated container, Saft can address the majority of grid, renewables, commercial and industrial applications that require large-scale ESS solutions able to sustain multiple daily cycles with typical discharge times of 2 to 4 hours.

The main applications for the Intensium Max 20 HE will be energy time-shifting for large solar photovoltaic (PV) and wind farms, as well as enabling utilities to defer grid investment through virtual power lines, and ‘behind the meter’ for large industrial and commercial premises.

In developing the Intensium Max 20 HE, Saft has focused on achieving high levels of safety, reliability and ease of maintenance in a design that is ‘best in class’ across energy density, energy efficiency, lifetime and performance with 1.2 MW power and 2.5 MWh energy storage. The container integrates all the essential control, thermal management and safety functions in a flexible, scalable architecture that provides the building block for the creation of large-scale installations up to 100 MW.

Hervé Amossé, Saft Executive Vice President Transportation, Telecom and Grid said: “Saft has generations of experience in the design, manufacture and delivery of containerized Li-ion systems that have established an outstanding track record in applications requiring high power for short durations, such as frequency support and ancillary services. We have put this wealth of experience into this fourth-generation container that enables us to address a much broader range of applications that require high energy delivered over long durations.” “We anticipate that the Intensium Max 20 HE will be a vital element in Saft’s new strategy to offer integrated turnkey ESS in which the battery forms part of a complete system that includes every element up to the grid connection.

The Intensium Max 20 HE is based around a new unmanned approach to the container design, with no need for an internal access corridor for maintenance, as the Li-ion modules and control systems can be accessed externally. Together with new larger modules and advanced cell designs, this has enabled a significant increase in energy density within the standard 20-foot container that offers ease of transportation and handling on site.

A further advantage of Saft’s containerized design is that the systems are fully fitted out and tested under factory-controlled conditions. This ensures that they arrive on site ready to ‘plug and play’ for fast, easy installation and commissioning. Saft takes responsibility for every aspect of their design and integration and provides long term warranties – an important point for customers who want to maximize reliability and availability.

Saft is able to serve customers worldwide by making the Intensium Max 20 HE available through three manufacturing hubs located in North America, Europe and the Far East, with the first shipments scheduled in September 2019 for a European wind and storage project.

Source: Saft

Siemens Finland has created a new business to expand its virtual power plant activity: Vibeco (Virtual Buildings Ecosystem) is an innovative approach to increase the benefits of increasingly decentralized energy systems. The heart of the virtual power plant is a software platform, operated by Siemens, that intelligently balances electrical loads from buildings that have been connected in a microgrid,
incorporating renewable energy and energy storage.

The new virtual power plant (VPP) service platform – a digitized demand-response system – makes it possible for the first time to combine the small electrical loads of buildings or industrial sites, so that building operators can sell energy back to the reserve market, with the ultimate goal to increase the flexibility of the electricity market as a whole.

We are shaping a new market at the grid edge with this technology,” explained Cedrik Neike, Chief Executive Officer Siemens Smart Infrastructure. “Together with the State of Finland, we are pioneering a model for decentralized energy systems to benefit utilities, business and society. The complexity of balancing loads across buildings, the grid and even with eMobility infrastructure requires deep domain expertise in the demand and supply areas.

The VPP service helps balance power consumption, to decrease the need for reserve power and, consequently, cutting carbon dioxide emissions. The Finnish national grid operator, Fingrid, compensates property owners when the VPP feeds energy into the public grid. Finland’s Ministry of Economic Affairs and Employment is providing a grant of 8.4 million euros for the required technology investments.

Siemens already has two pilot customers for its VPP approach: Finnish Railways will connect the iconic Helsinki Central Station as well as two train depots in a microgrid to create a virtual power plant.

Renewable energy is challenging the entire energy system. We want to prepare for these changes now,” says Juha Antti Juutinen, Director of Real Estate at Finnish Railways.

Lappeenranta, a city of 75,000 inhabitants close to the Russian border, will kick off with nine public buildings, scaling up to connect 50 more buildings to a city microgrid.

The virtual power plant service decreases the environmental impact of the city and provides additional income,” says Markku Mäki-Hokkonen, development manager of the City of Lappeenranta.

Siemens’ VPP platform leverages the company’s successful energy optimization project at Sello shopping mall, a property of 100.000 m2 space located in the suburbs of Helsinki. Sello’s microgrid combines energy efficiency, storage, optimization of peak loads, and its own electricity production. In addition, supplying extra energy to the reserve market has led to annual income of around 650,000 euros annually for the Sello property owners.

Source: Siemens

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Sistema de almacenamiento en baterías de 2.3 MW para mantener la estabilidad de la red en las islas Feroe | 2.3 MW BESS to maintain the grid stability of the Faroe Islands. Foto cortesía de / Photo courtesy of: Saft

The energy storage market has caught the eye of a number of stakeholders involved in the power industry, leading to its considerable growth and opening the way for next energy revolution, says GlobalData. GlobalData’s latest thematic report, ‘Thematic Research: Energy Storage’, highlights the present scenario and emerging market trends in the global energy storage industry, and the key companies behind the development of three energy storage technologies: electrochemical, mechanical and thermal energy storage.

The energy storage market is nascent but fast-growing. The demand for energy storage system (ESS) devices in the power sector is increasing rapidly, particularly after the increase in the renewable energy integration into the grids. Intermittent power supply led to demand for the storage of electrical energy and supply during peak load periods. ESS devices can help make renewable energy -whose power output cannot be controlled by grid operators- smooth and dispatchable.

With the global energy storage market becoming one of the rapidly growing segments within the renewable power mix, equipment manufacturers or technology providers of energy storage technologies are focused on innovating their energy storage solutions and offering advanced energy storage systems.

Battery energy storage system (BESS) is regarded as a crucial solution for overcoming the intermittency limitations of renewable energy sources (RES). The battery energy storage market reported cumulative deployment of 4.9 GW at the end of 2018 and is expected to reach 22.2 GW in 2023, with the US accounting for 24.7% of the global capacity. The deployment is expected to grow, due to a large number of countries opting for storage utilization to support their power sector transformation.

The expansion in battery manufacturing capacity and falling costs resulting from the electric vehicle (EV) industry are driving growth in energy storage services and new markets. This fall in battery prices has favored the battery energy storage market and has speeded the deployment of energy storage projects globally.

Currently, lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries dominate the electrochemical energy storage market but other battery energy storage technologies such as sodium-sulfur (NaS), lead-acid and flow batteries are now getting deployed. While, thermal energy storage utilizing molten salt is among the most widely used technology in association with concentrated solar power (CSP) projects, among mechanical energy storage technologies, pumped hydroelectric storage systems is among the most mature energy storage technologies and offers a number of benefits such as energy-balancing, stability, storage capacity, along with ancillary grid services which include network frequency control and reserves.

Source: GlobalData

The global battery energy storage market is forecast to grow to US$13.13bn by 2023. According to GlobalData, the Asia Pacific (APAC) and EMEA regions will be the dominant markets for battery energy storage systems over the forecast period 2019-2023. The company’s latest report ‘Battery Energy Storage Market, Update 2019 – Global Market Size, Competitive Landscape and Key Country Analysis to 2023’ reveals that the fall in technology prices and increasing pace of development in the power market are the primary driving factors for the battery energy storage market.

APAC will continue to be the largest market reaching US$6.05bn in 2023, as countries are increasing investments for improving their grid infrastructure and improving the market structure to attract foreign investments. As regards technology, lithium-ion is and will continue to be, the preferred technology for market deployment.

The US has been the largest market for Battery Energy Storage Systems (BESS) both in terms of cumulative installed capacity and by market value for projects installed up to 2018 and is likely to continue to lead the market at country level. The US market for battery energy storage is estimated to reach US$2.96bn in 2023, accounting for 23% of the global market.

Asia Pacific was the largest BESS market in 2018, accounting for 45% of the global market installed capacity and the region is also expected to maintain its top position in the forecast period. With the number of grid-connected renewable electricity generation plants increasing tremendously, countries such as China, India, Japan, South Korea and the Philippines will focus on frequency regulation in the electric grid to normalise the variation in power generation from renewables.

The EMEA battery energy storage market registered a market value of approximately US$1.73bn in 2018, accounting for 26% of the global market. The region has a strong demand for flexibility, due to technological advancements, evolving market conditions, strong research facilities and supportive policies. The Middle East and Africa are small markets with demand for storage expected to increase once renewable power generation gains significant traction in the market.

The battery energy storage market in the Americas registered a market value of approximately US$1.97bn in 2018, accounting for 28% in 2018. This region’s market is growing, with countries such as the US, Chile, Canada and Brazil promoting battery storage installations across consumer segments. Some US states have robust incentive programs, most notably California, which adopted an ambitious target for 1.3 GW of energy storage by 2020, which it has already surpassed with a new target awaiting approval.

With countries aggressively promoting the modernisation of grids and developing their capability to handle present and future demands, batteries are being deployed to support smart grids, integrate renewables, create responsive electricity markets, provide ancillary services and enhance both system resilience and energy self-sufficiency. Given this situation, the BESS market, which is estimated at 4.9 GW in 2018, is forecast to reach 22.2 GW by 2023.

Market conditions are improving and more companies are moving towards decentralised generation, leading to an increase in the on-site deployment of renewables and batteries, as well as in micro- or mini-grids. Supportive policies and high electricity charges are also nudging the market towards renewables and/or storage plus renewables at end consumer level.

As the power sector evolves to accommodate new technologies and adapt to varying market trends, energy storage will play a central role in the transition and transformation of the power sector.

Sistema de conversión de potencia de Ingeteam para un proyecto piloto en Dubái, el primer sistema de almacenamiento de energía en EAU acoplado a una planta fotovoltaica a gran escala / Ingeteam's power conversion system (PCS) for a pilot project in Dubai, the first energy storage system paired with a PV plant at a grid-scale level in the UAE. Foto cortesía de /Photo courtesy of: Ingeteam

Amplex-Emirates LLC was awarded a pilot project by Dubai’s Electricity & Water Authority (DEWA) to install a battery energy storage system (BESS) at the Mohammed Bin Rashid Al Maktoum Solar Park in Dubai; the first energy storage system paired with a photovoltaic plant at a grid-scale level in the United Arab Emirates. NGK Insulators LTD supplied its NAS batteries and Ingeteam was responsible for the supply of a 1.2 MW power conversion system (PCS) with its medium voltage components (power transformer, MV switchgear, etc.), and the power plant controller (PPC).

Dubai has accelerated investment in renewable energy to eliminate dependence on fossil fuels and for sustainable economic growth, and is building the Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum Solar Park, the world’s largest solar park, in the south of the Emirate. Dubai is targeting introduction of 5,000 MW of solar  PV and CSP by 2030, which will raise the ratio of renewable energy to 25% of total generation capacity. Furthermore, Dubai is seeking a 75% power output from clean energy sources by 2050.

In anticipation of the large-scale introduction of renewable energy in the future, DEWA installed a NAS battery system in the solar park to demonstrate its effectiveness in stabilizing grid fluctuations caused by the nature of renewable energy. The 1.2 MW/7.2 MWh NAS storage system is allowing DEWA for evaluating the technical and economic capabilities of this technology when integrated with PV arrays in order to increase grid stability and reduce CO2 emissions. In fact, the storage system will be also used for energy time shifting, frequency control and voltage control by using the large capacity of the batteries. This kind of hybrid systems help to deliver clean and reliable power to energy consumers with a greater availability and cost-effectiveness.

The Ingeteam supply was comprised of a 1.2 MVA power station equipped with two storage inverters and all the rest of components for a LV-to-MV and DC-to-AC conversion (medium voltage transformer, medium voltage switchgear, etc.). These inverters have been conceived to perform according to the most demanding international grid codes, featuring some very advanced operating functions such as black start capability. Moreover, they are suitable for both stand-alone and grid-tied systems. Also, Ingeteam supplied the Power Plant Controller (PPC) and the BMS interface control that manages the operation of the overall system, developing the more advanced control features, such as:

  • Energy Time Shifting. This control mode enables an advanced power generation planning, making the power plant’s production profile unmatch the consumption profile, allowing electric utilities to address daily peak demand that falls outside periods of solar generation.
  • Predictable PV+BESS production: The BESS is connected in the boundary of the PV plant and receives the real-time PV production. The power station automatically changes the active power according to the PV production variations to ensure a PV+BESS predictable power production in the common point of connection at the Syhaslm- 33/11kV substation.
  • Fast Frequency Regulation. The system adjusts the power production depending on the frequency variations.
  • Voltage Droop Control. According to an established droop gain, the system selects the necessary reactive power at the point of connection, depending on the existing voltage difference.

Source: Ingeteam

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