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A report recently published by the European Environment Agency (EEA) shows that there is still serious underinvestment in electric vehicle recharging infrastructure across Europe, with only one in three EU member states providing incentives.

According to the EEA report, specific incentives for electric vehicle charging points were found in only 10 out of the EU28. The European Automobile Manufacturers’ Association (ACEA) cautions that investments need to be stepped up, as future reductions of CO2 emissions from cars and vans are strongly dependent on increased sales of electric and other alternatively-powered vehicles.

This will only happen with an EU-wide roll-out of a charging and refuelling infrastructure. As the EEA points out in its report: a sufficient charging infrastructure is required to give people the confidence that fully electric vehicles will reliably meet their travel needs and help reduce anxiety linked with possible limitations in range. In this respect, the Directive on Alternative Fuel Infrastructure (DAFI) set clear objectives for the 28 member states as far back as 2014. To date, however, the implementation of the DAFI by national governments has been poor.

Although electric vehicle sales have increased in line with global car sale growth in recent years, their overall market share remains low (1.4% of total EU car sales), growing by just 0.8% between 2014 and 2017.

Even though all manufacturers are expanding their portfolios of electric cars, we unfortunately see that market penetration of these vehicles is quite weak and patchy across the EU,” stated ACEA Secretary General, Erik Jonnaert. “Consumers looking for an alternative to diesel often opt for petrol or hybrid vehicles, but the large-scale switch to the EV is not yet taking place. This new EEA report confirms that a dense EU-wide charging infrastructure network is an absolute must if we want consumers throughout the EU to really embrace electric vehicles.”

Although the European Commission has acknowledged that the market uptake of alternatively-powered vehicles and infrastructure roll-out are intrinsically connected, its recent proposal on post-2021 CO2 targets for passenger cars and vans does not link the availability of charging infrastructure to the proposed CO2 objectives.

In order to reflect the reality of the market, ACEA believes that Europe’s long-term climate goals should be linked to future infrastructure availability and consumer acceptance.

Akasol, based in Darmstadt (Germany), is now manufacturing lithium-ion battery systems for Daimler subsidiary EvoBus. The leading European bus manufacturer plans to launch its new electric bus Citaro at the 67th IAA Commercial Vehicles in September. These buses will be fitted with up to ten of Akasol’s AKASYSTEM OEM battery packs (max. 243 kWh). The innovative technology combines high demands on performance charging and discharging, energy density and lifespan.

Series manufacturing of the Citaro bus will start this year. “We’re working on this together with Akasol’s experts. Based on the specifications we have developed together, they manufacture battery systems for us with cells from Samsung,” confirms Gustav Tuschen, Head of Product Engineering Daimler Buses and a member of the EvoBus management team. “The batteries are being tempered at about 25°C. With this we expect maximum charging capacity, performance and lifetime.”

Akasol laid the foundation for delivering high performance battery systems to Europe‘s leading bus manufacturers by opening a serial production plant for commercial vehicle battery systems in Langen (Hessen, Germany) in autumn 2017. The facility has a yearly capacity of up to 300 MWh. Akasol believes, that this is Europe’s largest production plant for commercial vehicle lithium-ion battery systems.

Development, testing and validation of the AKASYSTEM OEM battery systems for EvoBus have run since 2015. “It was a great challenge for our company to meet Daimler’s high requirements on one of the most important components of electric power trains”, comments Sven Schulz, Managing Director of Akasol GmbH.

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Akasol’s battery systems in the electric Citaro are able to charge rapidly, meet the demands on operating range and also supply additional units such as air conditioning and electrical systems. Between six and ten of Akasol’s safe and powerful battery packs are mounted in the vehicles, partly on the roof, but also in the rear, where they take up the space that was once intended for the diesel engine.

The key factor for meeting our client’s demands on lifetime is our efficient water-cooling. Tempering has been shown to work efficiently and reliably both in winter tests in the north of Sweden where it was incredibly cold as well as on summer drives in the dry desert heat in southern Spain,” reports Sven Schulz. The Citaro bus with electric drive will have an operating range of 150 km (SORT2 cycles, medium traffic). Throughout the coming years operating range shall be continually improved upon.

According to a study by consultancy PwC, there are currently 200 electric buses, but more than 20,000 diesel buses operating in public transport in Germany. This year the number of electric vehicles could double. Cities such as Hamburg and others have announced that by 2020 they will only deploy new, emission-free vehicles such as Citaro E-CELL.

Akasol has developed and sold a range of battery systems for electric and hybrid buses for years. Aside from EvoBus another client of serially produced battery systems is a large European bus manufacturer from Sweden. VDL Bus & Coach (Netherlands) and Alexander Dennis are project-based clients. Electric buses equipped with Akasol’s battery technology operate successfully in London, Berlin, Braunschweig and Cologne amongst other places.

DACHSER Iberia and Mercedes-Benz Trucks continue to invest in a more innovative and sustainable logistics industry, with the launch of the first 7.5 ton hybrid truck that has already started to circulate in Madrid. The FUSO Canter Eco Hybrid 7C15 non-plug hybrid vehicle, distinguished by the Spanish Traffic Institution with the ECO category, is already operational under DACHSER, in a first route that covers the heart of the center of the capital: Calle Alcalá, Carrera de San Jerónimo , Sol, Calle Mayor, Cuesta de Santo Domingo and Gran Vía.

Ecological, social and economic sustainability is deeply anchored in DACHSER’s corporate values. The company supports various initiatives aimed at discovering new solutions to optimize distribution services. One of the projects is the implementation of this hybrid vehicle within the Euro 6 standards, combining a combustion and an electric engine; a combination that will significantly reduce the CO2 emission count and guarantee fuel savings of up to 23% compared to conventional trucks. The technological participation of Mercedes-Benz Trucks has been crucial in the project, designed to validate the application of sustainable vehicles for City Distribution.

Sustainability as a future strategy

Both companies are fully aligned when it comes to environmental awareness and consider it to be an indispensable part of their long-term business vision. Regarding DACHSER, the multinational has different lines of action within its Corporate Solutions, Research & Development unit, which develops more innovative and sustainable business models to deliver to inner cities within the framework of the project ‘City Distribution’. As all cities have their own individual and special requirements, the toolbox will serve as a practical method for providing a variety of solutions to the General Managers running the operational business on a local level. They will be able to choose between the relevant concepts and apply them regionally in their metropolitan areas, flexibly and according to their needs.

For example, Munich has had a hybrid truck exactly like the one implemented in Madrid since 2014, and other cities such as Paris already have their own trucks powered by electricity and liquefied natural gas (LNG). On the other hand, city distribution in Stuttgart, Copenhagen and Amsterdam has more alternative programs aimed at optimizing logistics in the city by involving different means of transport such as electric bicycles or barges on the cities’ canals. At the beginning of the year, DACHSER announced a total investment of 177 million euros for 2017 for the extension and improvement of its network. This also includes R&D projects concerning the optimization of transport efficiency and further investments in DACHSER´s advanced IT systems.

DACHSER Iberia has not only introduced the first hybrid truck in Madrid, but has also welcomed the first long truck (25,25m) in the DACHSER Iberia fleet, that connects Madrid with Barcelona and Arteixo with Lleida with two daily routes. Juan Quintana, Managing Director European Logistics Iberia, states that “DACHSER is committed to the progressive implementation of process and customer value-orientated innovation in its network, in line with the company’s long-term strategy in Europe and with the present environmental situation, which requires an adaptation of new energies and technologies”.

This publication was prepared by the Energy Technology Policy division of the Directorate of Sustainability, Technology and Outlooks (STO) of the International Energy Agency (IEA).

This report aims to provide an update on recent EV developments, providing detailed information on the recent evolution of EV registrations (vehicle sales), the number of EVs on the road, their modal coverage across the most relevant global vehicle markets.

The analysis also looks at the availability and characteristics of Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE), reporting on the evolution of deployment rates.

The report includes a review and a discussion of key elements on policy support, both for EVs and EVSE. The analysis is also providing insights on the encouraging signs that characterized the recent evolution of battery costs and energy density.

Key Points:

The year 2015 saw the global threshold of 1 million electric cars on the road exceeded, closing at 1.26 million. In 2014, only about half of today’s electric car stock existed. In 2005, electric cars were still measured in hundreds. 2015 also saw more than 200 million electric two wheelers on the road, and 170,000 buses, primarily in China.

The two main electric car markets are China and the United States. Seven countries have reached over 1% EV market share in 2015 (Norway, the Netherlands, Sweden, Denmark, France, China and the United Kingdom).

The uptake of electric cars has been growing since 2010, with a BEV uptake slightly ahead of PHEV uptake. 80% of the electric cars on road worldwide are located in the United States, China, Japan, the Netherlands and Norway.

Purchase incentives are among the most relevant and the most effective instruments promoting electric car sales.

Policies deployed in different countries result in different purchase incentives and BEV over PHEV adoption patterns, with Norway’s purchase incentives level standing out for both BEVs and PHEVs .

There are an estimated total of 1.45 million electric car charging points worldwide in 2015. Publicly accessible charging facilities have been following the growth trend of the electric car stock in the past year.

Country profiles differ with respect to the development of EVSE infrastructure. China and Japan account for more than 65% of fast-charging outlets. The geographical distribution of publicly accessible slow chargers is closer to the distribution of electric cars and private charging outlets.

Since 2008, battery costs were cut by a factor four and battery energy density had a five fold increase. Technological developments hold the promise to continue to deliver improvements in the forthcoming years.

The trends of battery energy density and cost over the past decade give encouraging signs on the possibility of meeting targets defined by carmakers and the United States Department of Energy (US DOE) for 2020 and 2022.

Individual country commitments would bring 13 million electric cars on the road by 2020. The EVI aims at a deployment of 20 million electric cars by 2020. In both cases, reaching 2020 deployment targets for BEVs and PHEVs requires a sizeable growth of the electric car stock. Meeting 2030 decarbonisation and sustainability goals requires a major deployment of electric cars in the 2020s.

 

Source: IEA

Schneider Electric and BMW i have started developing in Spain their joint global agreement on electric mobility signed by the two firms in 2013. Schneider Electric has designed an advanced performance Wallbox exclusively for BMW for residential use which will enable anyone who buys a BMW i3 or BMW i8 to charge, safely and speedily, their vehicle at home or in the office. The BMW i3 is the first electric vehicle to reach the market designed from the outset to be charged up at home. The German automotive firm launched the BMW i range last November, with sales forecasts of 10,000 units for 2014. However, just a few weeks after going to market, the BMW i3 already had 8,000 firm orders, most of them for the 100% electric vehicle, which suggests sales forecasts for the whole year will be beaten.
The BMW i Wallbox unit allows the user to charge immediately, that is, simply pressing the start button once the cable is connected, or else on a time delay, using a timer. To turn off, it also has two functions. Firstly, the automatic off function, once the battery is completely charged, or the manual turn-off control, by pressing the off button.

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